Teddy Boys 1950′s

History of the British Teddy Boy and Culture


A group of Teddy Boys admire the passing Teddy Girls on Clapham Common 1954.

History of the British Teddy Boy Movement



Teddy Boy Mike waits for his friend Pat on a cleared Bombsite, London 1955.

The origins of the Teddy Boys go back to the late 1940′s when Saville Row Tailor’s attempted to revive the styles of the reign of King Edward VII, 1901-1910, known as the Edwardian era, into men’s fashions. The Teddy Boy fashion of the fifties has its origins in what was an upper class reaction to the austerity imposed by the socialist government in the years following the World War II.



EDWARDIAN STYLE –  a photograph from the Tailor and Cutter & Women’s Wear, June 23, 1950 with the accompanying text:

“Following on our article concerning the dress of the students up at Oxford, which we printed in our June 9th issue, we show on the right(above) a photograph of Mr. Hugh Street, an Oxford undergraduate who favors the individual in single breasted suits.” 

“His jacket is generously skirted and button-four with a very short lapel and squarely-cut fronts.  Jacket pockets are slanted and are offset by narrow trousers (narrow all the way – not pegged topped) and double breasted waistcoat.  The Oxford breeze obliginly blows the left trouser against the Street leg and reveals a fashionable half boot.”

Wealthy young men, especially Guards officers adopted, the style of the Edwardian era. At that point in history, the Edwardian era was then just over forty years previous and their grandparents, if not their parents, wore the style the first time around.


Young Oxford undergraduates wearing elements of the neo-Edwardian style in the early 1950′s.

The original Edwardian revival was actually far more historically accurate in terms of replicating the original Edwardian era style than the later Teddy Boy style which was a fusion of British Edwardian and American Western styles. Although there had been youth groups with their own dress codes called ‘Scuttlers’ in 19th century Manchester and Liverpool, Teddy Boys were the first youth group in England to differentiate themselves as teenagers, helping create a youth market.


The neo-Edwardian look worn by an off-duty Guards Officer creted by Saville row Tailors in 1948.

“Originally, the Edwardian suit was introduced in 1950 by a group of Saville Row tailors who were attempting to initiate a new style. It was addressed, primarily, to the young aristocratic men about town. Essentially the dress consisted of a long narrow lapelled, waisted jacket, narrow trousers (but without being ‘drainpipes’), ordinary toe-capped shoes, and a fancy waistcoat. Shirts were white with cut-away collars and ties were tied with a ‘windsor’ knot. Headwear, if worn, was a trilby hat. The essential changes from conventional dress were the cut of the jacket and the dandy waistcoat. Additionally, barbers began offering individual styling, and hair-length was generally longer than conventional short back and sides.”

The description above was obtained from the typeset of a picture of the ‘authentic’ Edwardian dress which was put out by the Tailor and Cutter and printed in the Daily Sketch, 14th November 1953, in order to dissociate the ‘authentic’ from the working class adoption of the style.


TEDDY BOYS – the real thing- who visited “The Post” to demonstrate the authentic version of this youthful London craze. David Kelly (left) is in “Mississippi gambler style” Tony Griffith (middle) is true to the trend though in no particular style, and Ronald Bunting is in exact replica of Edwardian Fashion.

The principal features are the long coats with fur trimmings (velvet) the drainpipe trousers short of the ankles, the “Slim Jim” ties, fancy waistcoats and gaudy socks.  Dressy materials like barathea and gabardine are essential.  Between them, they have 10 other similar costumes.

The three youths, all 18 are native Londoners and of the opinion that Wellington’s “Teddy Boys” are not really that because they don’t dress as well.

Wellington Evening Post (New Zealand) Monday May 30th 7th 1955.


The emergence of the Working Class Edwardian 

The ‘Edwardian’s’ or a least ‘The Working Class Edwardian’ emerged without much warning ……. There was little preparation for his appearance as a fully fledged deviant, ( a person defined as a social problem) …. He had curious parents; one was the upper-class Edwardian dandy, the other the older delinquent subculture of South London …. his clothes were originally worn by the middle and upper classes, but this was only for a short period.


Swindon Teddy Boys at the Hammersmith Palais,  London 1955.

….Indeed the style was  worn throughout the 1950′s, but its meaning changed dramatically over the decade …. When the long jackets and tight trousers covered the middle class, the fashion was proclaimed a pleasing innovation, but it was rapidly re-appraised when it spread to young working-class males in 1952.  It seems that these new ‘Edwardians’ were ‘Spivs’ not the ‘respectable’ working class …. as a result, the middle class felt that they could no longer share the style with its new adherents.


Teddy Boys and Girls at The Locarno, Swindon, Wiltshire in 1954

In 1948 Saville Row Tailors got together to push the style on to the young Mayfair bloods, the Guardees, and onto the Businessmen, they pushed it so successfully that it then became the uniform of the dance hall creepers.

“It means” explained a disconsolate young ex-Guardee over a champange coctail, “That absolutely the whole of one’s wardrobe immediately becomes unwearable” Those who now wore Edwardian dress were described as delinquents …. Unfavorable social types were summoned forth to define them as, ‘zoot-suiters’, ‘hooligans’ and ‘spivs’ ….  The newspaper that these comments appeared in did not hesitate to award them an unambiguous identity …. The clothing was unchanged, but its wearers had translated it into a stigma.


Teddy Boys at High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire in 1957.

Knowing the ingrown conservatism of any English working-class community and its opposition to dandyism and any hint of effeminacy, it must have taken a special boldness for the first Teddy Boys of South London to swagger along their drab streets in their exaggerated outfits.


Teddy Boys Tony Ackrill, Tony Bond and Bill Ferris at Faringdon Road Park, Rodbourne, Swindon, Wiltshire in 1954.

The question which has to be asked is how had this style managed to cross the River Thames? It could hardly have come direct from Savile Row.  The general explanation is that it reached South London via Soho. It was a new post-war development that young manual labourers from South London, especially those who had seen military service, went far more readily than before for their evening’s entertainment to “the other side”, that is, the West end, the square mile of large cinemas and little clubs, jazz haunts and juke box cafe’s, which around Soho abut on theatre land and fashionable restaurants.


Teenagers at the Corbett Hospital Fete, Stourbridge, Worcestershire in August 1957 - note the Teddy Boy on the right with the drape with the half-moon pockets.

It was Soho that the Elephant Boys were said to have encountered the new fashion of dressing eccentrically, through meetings either with young Mayfair Edwardians or the latter’s Soho imitators.  Anyhow, the novel fact was that they picked up the fashion and imitated it, perhaps because its look appealed to them, but probably also because its exaggeration corresponded to something in their own outlook, a nagging dissatisfaction, a compelling demand to draw attention to themselves.


Some young Edwardian’s form Wolverhampton around 1955.


Spivs, Cosh Boys or Creepers


Richard Attenborough plays ‘Pinkie’, a typical ‘Spiv’ dressed in a long double-breasted suit with a Trilby Hat in the 1947 film, ‘Brighton Rock’ alongside Hermoine Braddely. The long jacket can be seen to have been heavily influenced by the American Zoot Suit and is regarded as the precursor style to the Edwardian look.

During the second World War, the ‘Spiv’ was born and originated in the ‘Borough’ of Southwark in South London.  Spiv’s were a particular type of petty criminal who dealt in illicit, typically black market goods of questionable authenticity.

The image of the Spiv was a slickly-dressed man offering goods at bargain prices.  The goods that Spiv’s offered were generally not what they seemed or had been obtained illegally.  The term Spiv was widely used during the Second World War and in the post-war rationing period of the late 1940′s and 1950′s. Spiv’s however by contrast to the Teddy Boys were much older men in their thirties, forties and fifties and although they adopted a certain dress style, they were clearly not teenagers.  Nevertheless, the image and style of the Spiv is generally accepted by historians a precursor style to that of the Teddy Boy.

A spiv in 1945 with a Voigtlander camera for sale on the blackmarket in London.


Cosh Boys 

Cosh Boys in Notting Hill, London in 1954 wearing finger-tip length jackets of a style which immediately preceded Teddy Boy style. Note the chain attached to the belt loop, which was a direct influence from the Zoot Suit.

Following on from the Spiv’s and during the early 1950′s some teenage gangs started to appear in the East End of London and they became known as Cosh Boys. The fundamental differences between the Cosh Boys and the Spiv’s was that Cosh Boys were much younger that the Spiv’s. Cosh Boys were also violent, but probably the most important element was that they were youths who had adopted the Edwardian fashion as part of their identity.  It was therefore very easy to recognise them as they had started to adopt the long drape jacket with velvet collar and cuffs narrower trousers and a Slim Jim tie. Their hair was “long” and greased. These Cosh Boys terrified London society with stories of razor attacks, robberies, fights between gangs and assaults against the police.


A number of quotes from newspaper articles from the early 1950′s discuss the Cosh Boy, the clothes they wore and the fact that the general population regarded them as a menace to society.


The same two Cosh Boys at Notting Hill in 1954.

As early as 1951, Cosh Boys had been wearing finger-tip drapes (so called because they must reach as far as the fingertip when the arm is fully extended) bright ankle socks, fancy shoes with thick crepe rubber wedge soles (which are known to the connoisseurs as “Creepers”).  The girls, or so the boys claim, are copying male hairstyles, especially the D.A. (so called because of it’s resemblance to a ducks rear).  The costume most in favour now is a black be-bop sweater over a pencil skirt either slit or buttoned, a three-quarter check overcoat and three tier wedge shoes.  - Daily Mirror October 28th1951.

The Sunday Graphic reported that the Police Forces of Britain are to “Get the first one in” against the teenage gangs of the big towns.  A newly organised Police plan to rid the country of the Cosh Boys, the bicycle-chain thugs and the knuckle-duster gangs.  The appointment of  Flying Squad Chief Superintendant Chapman to the head of No.3 District Metropolitan Police, which covers the East End of London, is part of the new campaign.  Toughness is the key and and the C.I.D. aided by the recent law making it a crime to carry offensive weapons “Without authority or reasonable excuse” - The Sunday Pictorial March 19th 1950.

Four Cosh Boys who robbed an old woman after one of them burned her face with a cigarette were jailed for five years.  After hearing what they had done Mr Justice oliver told the prosecuting council ” I wish some of the persons who oppose flogging could have heard your statement” - Daily Mirror October 15th 1952.


James Kenny and Joan Collins in the 1953 Film Cosh Boy.

A British film was released in 1953 called “Cosh Boy” starring James Kenny, Joan Collins, Hermionie Baddeley, Hermioine Gingold, Betty Ann Davis and Robert Ayres. The film was based on an original play by Bruce Walker, and tells of the exploits of 16-year-old delinquent youth Roy Walsh (James Kenney) and his gang in post World War II London. The characters portrayed in the film would later tar all Teddy Boys with the same brush as being juvenille delinquents.

Another nickname which was given to Teddy Boys in the early 1950′s was “Creepers”, this derived from the dance – “The Creep” by Yorkshire Big Band leader, Ken Mackintosh.  This was a dance performed by Teddy Boys and Girls before the advent of Rock ‘n’ Roll in Britain.


A well known dance that the Teddy Boys adopted was ‘The Creep‘, a slow shuffle of a dance so popular with Teddy Boys that it led to their other nickname of ‘creepers’.


The Creep by Ken Macintosh

Writers Paul Rock and Stan Cohen date the crossover from upper-class fashion to working-class youth style at 1953 and they comment that the new Edwardians (Teddy Boys) were ‘lumpenproletarian “creepers” ‘ (a German word literally meaning “raggedy proletarian” which is derived from the Latin proletarius, a citizen of the lowest class) and not of the ‘respectable working class’. Writer T.R. Fyvel’s account explains that the Edwardian fashion was usurped by working-class youths in 1953 after it had been ‘launched from Savile Row … as an answer to American styles’.


10th October 1953: London gang member Colin Donellan dressed in fashionable Edwardian Teddy Boy style outside a Cecil Gee shop.

It was bold and rebellious in its own right before its usurpation by Teddy Boys because it was an extravagant upper-class snub to the post-war Labour Government and its message of austerity. Fyvel claims that, in this form, the fashion was shortlived because, having started in Mayfair, it soon vanished from London and entered the suburbs. In the meantime it was transported and transformed to the South London working-class areas of Elephant and Castle, Lambeth, Vauxhall and Southwark, where it retained its meaning of social revolt but in a new context, that of petty crime and swank, with clear connections to earlier groups like Spivs.



Two smart Teddy Boys pictured in Worthing, Sussex with the Ted on the left wearing a brocade waistcoat with velvet trim.

Edwardian dress began to be taken up by working class youths sometime in 1953 and, in those early days, was often taken over wholesale (The Daily Mirror of 23rd October, 1953, shows a picture of Michael Davies, who was convicted of what later became known as the first ‘Teddy Boy’ killing, which would bear this out. In fact the picture shows him in a three piece matching suit, i.e. without the fancy waistcoat.)


Leonard Sims, a young Teddy Boy sports his newly tailored Drape jacket with flap button-down pockets.  The photograph was part of an article published in the daily Mirror Newspaper on Friday 13th November 1955 entitled Why I wear these Togs.


The Boys from the Elephant

One theory as to how the Edwardian style was adopted by working class youths was that some young men from Elephant and Castle called the Elephant Mob were on a recce in the West End and were impressed by the rather flashy and expensive-looking new Edwardian-style and quickly took it for their own.


Tony Reuter, one of the Elephant Boys posing as a Teddy Boy for The People Newspaper in 1955.

Around 1950/51 these same young men from around Elephant and Castle, Lambeth and the Borough (Southwark) having appropriated the uptown Edwardian clothes started to mix it up with the look of a World War Two Spiv. In addition they borrowed the hairstyles and style influences of American Westerns (the Mississippi gambler maverick tie for instance) that were hugely popular in the early fifties.


A group of Teddy boys find themselves with nowhere to go and hang around on the Old Kent Road at Elephant and Castle, South London, 13th July 1955.

It would seem however, that there is somewhat of a case to suggest that the gang from Elephant & Castle who had been impressed with the upper class Edwardian dress that they had seen in Mayfair could well have been the first to start the Edwardian working class style in 1950/51. This was later described in T.R. Fyvel’s book, “The Insecure Offenders” as being The Fashion from the Elephant, in other words it could be said that there is a probability that some members of “The Elephant Boys” could well have been the first Teddy Boys!



Outside the ABC, Elephant & Castle, 1954.

All of the Elephant Gang were snappy dressers. Suits cost roughly the equivalent of two weeks’ wages or more.  They were made to measure by excellent tailors on the basis of a deposit and some of the balance paid at each of the two fittings with the remainder paid on collection.  The style varied but was never outlandish with generally two buttoned conventional suits.


Boys wearing Edwardian style clothes at the “Teen Canteen” at Elephant & Castle, South London, July 1955 – note the unusually long sideburns of the Teddy Boy with the double-breasted waistcoat for the period.

When the Edwardian fashion came in at Elephant & Castle, the style was a three or four buttoned three piece suit without velvet collar, although this sometimes appeared on overcoats.  Fashionable materials at this time were mohair or twenty-two ounce worsted in say clerical grey.  Just try to buy that material nowadays.  Amongst notable tailors were Harris and Hymies, both in the Cut near Blackfriars; Diamond Brothers at Shaftesbury Avenue; Sam Arkus in Berwick Street, Soho; and Charkham’s of Oxford Street.


The Teddy Boy Fashion spreads throughout Britain.


Young Teddy Boy Frank Harvey in Tottenham, North London in 1954 (from the Picture Post)


Although the popular press of the day claim that the working-class Edwardian fashion was initially worn in south and east London during the early 1950′s, the fashion was actually taking hold all over the country at the same time. Examples of this can be found in Newspaper reports and Photographs which confirm this.

A young Teddy Boy – George taken in the traditional terraced streets of Salford, Lancashire – mid fifties.

This potent fashion statement of wearing the Edwardian style could very well have been the first time teenage boys developed their own style of clothing that differentiated from their fathers or elder brothers. It was a conscious and colourful attempt, just like the posh dandies in St James, to rebel against the grey post-war austerity that had enveloped the country after the war. These fashionable young men from South London and elsewhere would later be known as Teddy Boys but the term had not been invented at that point in time and the boys were then simply known as Edwardian’s.


Teddy Boys outside ‘The Royalty’ Mecca Dance Hall, Tottenham, London 29 May 1954.

There are of course many differing accounts of where the Teddy Boy style actually started and the ensuing pattern of geographical expansion. Some writers, for example, maintain that the first Teds emerged in the East End and in North London, around Tottenham and Highbury, and from there they spread southwards, to Streatham and Battersea and Purley, and westwards, to Shepherds Bush and Fulham, and then down to the seaside towns, and up into the Midlands until, by 1956, they had taken root all over Britain.


Teddy Boy, Roy Bradley aged 16 in 1955 at Peterborough.

There is however now more evidence to support the view that the working class Edwardian style and fashion actually started around the country at around and about the same time. Part of the reason that South London is seen as the birthplace of the working class Edwardian style is because the popular press of the day reported the emergence of the style in the London Press.  However there are many reports of the style being adopted in other parts of the country in the early 1950′s with young men wearing tighter than normal trousers, long jackets, ‘brothel creeper’ shoes and sporting Tony Curtis hairstyles.

In 1953, the major newspapers reported on the sweeping trend in men’s fashion across all the towns of Britain, towards what was termed the New Edwardian look. However the working class Edwardian style had been on the street since at least 1951, because the style had been created on the street by the street and by working class teenagers and not by Saville Row or fashion designers such as Hardy Amis.


The influence of the Zoot Suit 


As early as 1941 the drape style jacket can see to be emerging through the Zoot Suit.  These non-delinquent youths who are Jitterbug fans are wearing Zoot suits, most of which are single -breasted and not double-breasted as is typical of most Zoot Suits.


Due to ignorance, the popular press at the time got the emergence of the working class Edwardian style confused with the American Zoot suit and featured articles and reports of the growth amongst working class teenagers of Zoot Suit Gangs.

Zoot Suits nevertheless, are known to have had a direct influence on the re-emergence of the Edwardian style. Zoot Suits originated in the Harlem district of New York in the 1930′s and were associated with black American Jazz culture and later adopted by Hispanic Americans during the early 1940′s. There was a similarity between the long jacket of the Zoot Suit and the Edwardian Drape Jacket insofar that it was a longer than conventional length.


Three Jamaican immigrants,(left to right) John Hazel, a 21-year-old boxer, Harold Wilmot, 32, and John Richards, a 22-year-old carpenter, arriving at Tilbury Docks, Essex on board the ex-troopship SS Empire Windrush on 22 June 1948, smartly dressed in ‘Zoot Suits’ and trilby hats.


The American  Zoot Suit by  way of comparison  features high-waisted, wide-legged, tight-cuffed, pegged trousers, and a long double-breasted jacket with wide lapels and wide padded shoulders.  It is generally worn with a Fedora Hat.  Zoot suits usually featured a watch chain dangling from the belt to the knee or below, then back to a side pocket, which was a feature adopted by British Teddy Boys. The creation and naming of the Zoot Suit have been variously attributed to Harold C. Fox, a Chicago clothier and big-band trumpeter Louis Lettes, a Memphis tailor; and Nathan (Toddy) Elkus, a Detroit retailer.  The name ‘Zoot’ is thought to have been a corruption or reduplication of the word suit.

The first appearances of Zoot Suits appearing in Britain was when a number of Black American soldiers wore Zoot Suits in Britain whilst on R & R in Dance Halls in Britain during World War II.  Many West Indians, particularly Jamaicans then brought the suit to Britain during Commonwealth Immigration in the late 1940′s and 1950′s.  The Zoot Suit most certainly had some influence on Saville Row Tailors during the re-introduction of the New Edwardian style in the late 1940′s and early 1950′s.


The ‘Edwardian’ becomes the ‘Teddy Boy’ 


Turning the corner into Princedale Road, North Kensington, Roger Mayne saw a group of young Teddy Boys whom he thought ‘a bit sinister’. Crossing to the opposite side, he had got past them when one called out, ‘Take our photo, Mister!’. Mayne turned around and took a number of photos – he ‘wasn’t going to miss a chance like that’. ‘Teds’ had attracted a violent and criminal reputation. Some carried flick-knives.

The name “Teddy Boy” however, was not officially born until September 23rd 1953 when a Daily Express newspaper headline shortened Edward to Teddy and coined the term ‘Teddy Boy’(also known as Ted). Nevertheless, it is also known that a number of girlfriends of working class Edwardian’s were referring to them as Teddy Boys well before the Daily Express used its media power to officially christen Edwardian’s into Teddy Boys.



This choice of dress by working class youngsters was, initially, an attempt to buy status since the clothes chosen had been originally worn by upper-class dandies. These were then quickly aborted by a harsh social reaction.

It should be mentioned however, that at the peak of the Teddy Boy movement in 1954/55, the number of fully bona-fide Teddy Boys in the Greater London area did not exceed a top figure of 30,000.  This fact dispenses with the modern idea that all British teenage boys in the 1950′s were Teddy Boys.



Teddy Boy George Lamont in a black and white ‘dog-tooth’ drape jacket with black velvet collar and cuffs with his girlfriend, Teddy Girl Edna Hockridge, Aberdeen Scotland 1955.

In 1954 second-hand Edwardian suits were on sale in various markets as they had become rapidly unwearable by the upper-class dandies once the Teddy Boys had taken them over as their own. This was then followed by by the Teddy Boys creation of their own style via the modifications already outlined. This, then, was the Teddy Boys one contribution to culture: their adoption and personal modification of Savile Row Edwardian suits.



Teddy Boys and National Service.

“National Service, unfortunately, aggravates the trouble.  Most boys regard it as a tiresome chore that has to be completed before life really begins. Between school-leaving and call-up there is little incentive to settle down.”Unknown Newspaper column 1954.

Many people tend to forget that most teenagers who had started to adopt the Edwardian style were leaving school and entering the workplace at 14 and 15 years of age.  The boys would then later at the age of 18 (or 21 if serving an apprenticeship) be called up for National Service into the British Armed Forces. In many cases the boys would be sent to overseas trouble spots such as Egypt during the Suez crises in 1956, the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya during the 1950′s and Aden.  Many older people who had previously served in the armed forces had the view that National Service would ensure that these youngsters would ‘get their hair cut’ and have the Ted Style ’beasted’ out of them.



This was however not the case and many National Servicemen kept the Edwardian style holding onto the addage that whats under the beret is mine and what is outside is the Army’s.  However, a number of Army and Air Force units did everything they could to knock this Teddy Boy style out of their squaddies and airmen with limited success.  Here is an example of this from the Daily Mirror, June 11th 1955:

‘The order was given “on parade in civvies”, it was quite the strangest parade in the garrison’s proud history. Some of the men wore Edwardian suits, drainpipe trousers and long, tight-fitting jackets, drape suits. They had ‘jazzy’ shirts and ties, with fancy shoes “to match”.  The C.O. (Commanding Officer), six foot tall tough looking Colonel R.G. Pine-Coffin, D.S.O. stood and stared then banned the lot.  In future, he ordered only modestly cut lounge suits, sports jackets or blazers and flannels or uniform may be worn by men “walking out” off duty. He added “When I saw how some of my went about Aldershot, I just had to order this Parade.  I expect a few, the few who delight in the extravagant dress of Hollywood or East End Spiv’s feel that their liberties are being interfered with, but the Edwardian Suits, fancy shoes and jazzy ties and socks I have seen some wearing are not becoming of a soldier.  We’re a proud lot in the Airborne and feel that these modern fashions that a few of the chaps like, rather let’s the mob down!”.’




It should be made clear however that these young Edwardians were only teenagers and  thereafter society expected these same young Edwardian teenagers to grow out of this rebellious style – make sure they had a regular job, get married, have children and settle into 1950′s family life.


Bob Corbett,  17 of Liverpool wears a silver grey suit with black lapels and black piping and brown suede shoes. A slightly advanced version of an orthodox Teddy outfit June 1954.

Many young men in the mid-fifties however could not actually afford to purchase the entire Teddy Boy outfit and would wear only elements of it. The shoes were an affordable part of the Teddy Boy style; brothel creepers, lots of entwined leather on the top and thick crepe soles.  That element spread as shoes were more readily available than the clothes themselves.


A group of Northampton Teddy Boys all wearing Drape Jackets.

The sartorial signifiers like ‘drain-pipe’ trousers may well have identified a Teddy Boy however, this would have only been the case within the ‘teens and twenties’ age bracket. Male teenagers sported certain signs of peer group belonging, like the hair, the trousers and the shoes, but the Teddy Boys uniform in its entirety was not widely adopted by the mainstream teenager. It tended to be those Teddy Boys in gangs who would wear the whole regalia.



Outside of London, few youths adopted the whole of the Teddy Boy regalia, rather they took on only parts of it – the ones that they could get away with if they could afford them, ‘there were a lot of the drainpipe trousers and haircuts and things like that’.


A Teddy Boy dances with his girl at The Royalty Mecca Dance Hall, Tottenham, London 1954.


It is estimated that in terms of numbers in 1953-54 there were a ‘few thousand’ Teds and that they roamed the streets in gangs and that they were territorial and occasionally violent towards other Teddy Boy gangs.


Bob Aber, a then young Teddy Boy from Northampton photographed in London by John Facer in a single link two piece drape suit (the shadow). Note the photograph was made from the negative placed the wrong way round.


The advent of Rock ‘n’ Roll music in Britain – the Teddy Boys make this their own! 



In 1954  Rock ‘n’ Roll had not really been heard of in the UK,  it wouldn’t arrive on these shores until as a main stream music until 1955/6. However, it is a mistake to believe that Teddy Boys and Girls did not have an interest in music, prior to the advent of Rock ‘n’ Roll. Dance Halls were extremely popular places with young adults during the early 1950s and there were plenty of new dance crazes to keep them interested.



Although Teddy Boys are associated with Rock ‘n’ Roll music, the style actually came before the music. Rock ‘n’ Roll was generally adopted by the young generation (which of course included the Teddy Boys) from 1955 when the film, Blackboard Jungle, was first shown in cinemas in the Britain.


By 1955, Britain was well placed to receive American rock and roll music and culture. It shared a common language, had been exposed to American culture through the stationing of troops in the country, and shared many social developments, including the emergence of distinct youth sub-cultures, which in Britain of course included the Teddy Boys. Trad Jazz became popular, and many of its musicians were influenced by related American styles, including boogie woogie and the blues. This was a style that tended to be followed by University students and tended to be shunned by working class Teddy Boys.  The skiffle craze, led by Lonnie Donegan, utilised amateurish versions of American folk songs and encouraged many of the subsequent generation of rock and roll, folk, R&B and beat musicians to start performing.


Bill Haley and His Comets rehearsing at London’s Dominion Theatre, February 6, 1957.Bill Haley’s ‘Shake Rattle and Roll’ is certainly the record that introduced Rock and Roll to an unprepared British Public. But most people will probably tell you that it was another record  that started it all.  That other record was ‘Rock Around The Clock’ which was recorded in 1954, but didn’t chart in the UK until October 1955. However, it was still in the chart when ‘Rip It Up’, Haley’s 11th UK success entered the chart at the end of 1956! ‘Rip It Up’ was almost the last in the amazing run of hit records that Bill Haley had issued in the UK during 1956.

It was the beginning of something new, a wind of freedom. In Britain, in September 1956, Bill Haley had 5 records in the ‘Top 20′ and the film Rock Around The Clock was shown at 300 cinemas.

At the same time British audiences were also beginning to encounter American rock and roll, initially through films including Blackboard Jungle (1955) and Rock Around the Clock (1955). Both movies contained the Bill Haley & His Comets hit “Rock Around the Clock”, which first entered the British charts in early 1955 – four months before it reached the US pop charts - topped the British charts later that year and again in 1956, and helped identify rock and roll with teenage delinquency.



In 1956, the film, Blackboard Jungle made its premier at the Trocadero Cinema at Elephant & Castle in South London. It was then shown thereafter at Cinemas throughout Britain.  At the end of the film, the song ‘Rock around the Clock’ was played and at the Trocodero, Teddy Boys danced with their girls in the aisles and when cinema staff attempted to stop them, they rioted and ripped up the cinema seats with flick knives.


This was replicated at copycat riots during the screening of the film at Cinema’s throughout the country. Teddy Boys had now embraced Rock ‘n’ Roll for the first time and made it their own. The government and media were outraged and the film was subsequently banned from many cinemas. The media jumped on this phenomenon, placing the new rock ‘n’ roll music and the Teddy Boys at the centre of all the rioting. This confirmed the pre-conception to many members of the establishment, that Teddy Boys were in fact Juvenile Delinquents and social outcasts.

Newspapers were filled with pictures of Teddy Boys and girls dancing and jiving outside the cinemas. The police were frequently involved in quelling, what was in many instances simply teenage high spirits. There can be no doubt that the media had a big hand in sensationalising the rioting and seat slashing, and thereby simply poured fuel on the smouldering embers of the Trocadero riot, and fanned the flames for what in many instances were obviously copycat riots. Blackboard Jungle was also the first major studio film to use Rock ‘n’ Roll on the soundtrack.

The success of the film, Blackboard Jungle, kick-started sales ofRock Around the Clock by Bill Haley and his Comets, which helped spark the advent of Rock ‘n’ Roll in Britain.

By the spring of 1957 Bill Haley & the Comets were never to enter the chart again, save re-issues of their previous material.  Whatever doubts there may be about Bill Haley’s musical influences, he can certainly be credited with unleashing  Rock and Roll on the British record buyer.

American rock and roll acts such as Elvis Presley, Little Richard and Buddy Holly thereafter became major forces in the British charts.




A young Teddy Boy with a Drape jacket and high-waisted trousers dances with his girl at a local Dance Hall.



A group of Brierley Hill (Dudley) Worcestershire Teddy Boys mid 1950′s


The initial response of the British music industry was to attempt to produce copies of American records, recorded with session musicians and often fronted by teen idols. More grassroots British rock and rollers soon began to appear, including Tommy Steele and Wee Willie Harris. During this period American Rock and Roll remained dominant; however, in 1958 Britain produced its first “authentic” rock and roll song and star, when Cliff Richard & the Drifters (later Shadows) reached number 2 in the charts with “Move It”.  The 2is Coffee Bar in Old Compton Street, Soho in London’s West End became the home of and the birthplace of many of Britain’s home-grown Rock ‘n’ Roll Stars.


An Edinburgh Teddy Boy in a two piece drape suit that is in need of a good pressing – mid 1950′s.


At the same time in 1958, TV shows such as Six-Five Special and Oh Boy! Came about and promoted the careers of British rock and rollers like Marty Wilde and Adam Faith. Cliff Richard and his backing band, The Shadows, were the most successful home grown rock and roll based acts of the era.  Other leading acts included Billy Fury, Joe Brown, and Johnny Kidd & The Pirates, whose 1960 hit song “Shakin’ All Over” became a rock and roll standard.


Brian Licorice Locking Roy Clark and Vince Eagers first appearance at the 2is Coffee Bar as the Vagabonds circa November 1957.

Teddy Boys are and were a totally British phenomenon as opposed to the other styles worn in countries such as the United States. Also don’t forget that Teddy Boys were listening and dancing to mainly Big Band, Jazz and Skiffle type music prior to the advent of Rock ‘n’ Roll.


Alec Cruikshank, a clerk in a City of London shipping office walking towards the Mecca Dance Hall, Tottenham, Middlesex (North London) on 29th May 1954.


Criminality and Clothes.


When teenager John Beckley was murdered by a Teddy Boy gang known as the Plough Boys in July 1953 after a fight that started on Clapham Common, the Daily Mirror’s headline Flick Knives, Dance Music and Edwardian Suits’ linked criminality to clothes.

Teddy Boys became regarded by many as the urban, unskilled working class boys, looking for an identity through the clothes they wore. A number of Teddy Boys pursued gang warfare and vandalism in both the streets and the dance halls, carrying coshes, bicycle chains, razors and flick-knives beneath their fine Edwardian style clothes.  This reputation then gave any youth who wore elements of the Teddy Boys dress as being tarred with the same brush.

However to many this was a style of dress and a fashion to be worn and of course not all Teddy Boys were as the popular press described. The 1950′s was the first decade to produce teenage fashions, before this they were expected to dress similar to their parents. Following the war, when prosperity hit Britain, these working class teenagers could afford to buy their own clothes, although most shops only offered ‘off the peg’ conventional styles and many tailors refused to make up these ‘new’ fashions. The teenagers were now a marketing target that made 50′s fashion a symbol of a whole new lifestyle.




Teddy Boys were the first real high profile teenagers in Britain, who flaunted their clothes and attitude like a badge.  It comes as no surprise then that the media was quick to paint them as violent and a menace based on a single incident.  However, many Teddy Boys formed gangs and gained notoriety following violent clashes with rival gangs which were often exaggerated by the popular press.

Many negative newspaper headlines then appeared in the popular press and here are some examples from various cities and towns in England during the mid fifties:

“Cinemas, dance halls and other places of entertainment in South east London are closing their doors to youths in ‘Edwardian’ suits because of gang hooliganism. The ban, which week by week is becoming more generally applied, is believed by the police to be one of the main reasons for the extension of the area in which fights with knuckle dusters, coshes, and similar weapons between bands of teenagers can now be anticipated. In cinemas, seats have been slashed with razors and had dozens of meat skewers stuck into them.” 

Daily Mail, 12th April 1954.



Edwardian spivs plan new swoop 


Police are Standing by

BRIGHTON, Saturday Night.

Britain’s most famous holiday resort, packed with Easter visitors in it’s Centenary year, is being terrorised by rival gangs of “Edwardian” thugs.

Gang fights between rival ‘Edwardian thugs’ from Southsea, Portsmouth and the East End of London came to a head in one of Britains most popular holiday resorts.  In the month of March 1954 the youths, all dressed in the uniform of the of exaggerated Edwardian jackets and drainpipe trousers clashed with a local gang in a quarral over two girls.  The visiting gang from Southsea got the worst of it. Two Policemen were called in to quell the disturbance.

The gang announced that they would return with reinforcements on  Easter Sunday. Thus Brighton Police, many of them on special duty were standing by to cope with the threatened invasion by the teenage gangsters from the Southsea and Portsmouth area.  The Police were determined to do everything possible to avoid a local incident like the Clapham Common youth gang killing, but admit that the ‘Edwardians’ had the upper hand.

Sunday Chronicle (Brighton), April 18th 1954. 




Police appeal for witnesses.

A Slough man, razor-slashed in a fight outside the Public Library in William Street on Saturday night was so shocked when he saw his face in the mirror that he collapsed.

He was later taken to Upton Hospital and had twenty stitches inserted in to his face. 

Slough Observer – Friday February 4th 1955



Alleged Razor Attack by Teddy Boy


A Razor, alleged to have been used by a Teddy Boy in slashing four youths in a Christmas night brawl, was shown to the jury at Notts Assizes.  A 22 year old Yorkshire Railway Shunter, pleaded not guilty to four charges of wounding with intent to do grievous bodily harm.  

Mr T.R. Fitzwalter, prosecuting said “It is a deplrorable, indeed, that youths aged 18 to 20 can find no better way of celebrating a time of what we regard as peace and goodwill, by indulging in an unseemly brawl of the kind you will hear.”  Describing a Teddy Boy, Mr Fitzwalter said “The expression is used to describe youths who go about in gangs and clothes supposed to belong to the Edwardian era”.

Nottingham Evening Post, February 28th 1955. 

Here’s a great clip of 1950′s Teddy Boys from Burnt Oak, North London being interveiwed by a News Reporter about an attack on a Vicar.It seems Teddy Boys disappear in the Summer & all go Fishing!

Although many incidents of hooliganism, violence and rowdyism were reported at face value.  The press coverage of a murder that took place in May 1955 provides an example of the role played by the mass media.  A sixty year old Cypriot was killed by one of a group of four youths in a road in Camden Town.  There was nothing about this unpleasant killing that indicated a ‘typical’ Teddy Boy crime, yet almost all the newspapers which appeared on the following morning referred to the killer as a ‘Teddy Boy’.

“There were reports of Police Investigations of Teddy Boy activity in Camden Town, and a Detective Superintendent  was widely quoted as sending out a message to his men to “Find every Teddy Boy, go into the pubs and dance halls and bring in the boys of that gang”.  A week later , a 21 year old was arrested and sent for trial, the same Detective Superintendent said at the preliminary hearing that the boy had an ‘excellent’ character and was not a Teddy Boy. There was no evidence that he had been a member of a gang.”

London Evening News, May 21st 1955. 

Press over-reaction was becoming common.  The Daily Express report of the crime claimed:

“Four shallow-faced Teddy Boys lounging in the shadows of the corner Baker’s shop”.  

Daily Express, May 22nd 1955.

The accuracy of this description is not an issue, although it would be interesting to know how the reporter learned of the boys complexions!


London Teddy Boys portraying the popular violent image in the 1959 UK film ‘Sapphire’

More incidents were reported again in the May of 1955.


Two fair-haired Teddy Girls in black sweaters and tight skirts started clawing each other in the corner of the bath Pavilion.  Rival Teddy Boys joined the fight and sixteen were arrested as Police routed rival razor gangs from Bath and Bristol.  Witnesses said that bicycle chains and knuckledusters were used in the fight, but Police found no weapons.  Mr. P. Bedford, Bath Pavilion Director said “The question of whether this type of youth should be banned from municipal dances should be considered.”

Daily Express, May 30th 1955


Blackpool Tower Ballroom, Lancashire, 1954. The sign to the left of the stage reads NO BOP, NO JIVE!

A Blackpool Cinema Manager declared that “I’m the one who decides whether a youth is wearing Edwardian dress or not, my decision is final”.  The Police told of a new purge of Teddy Boy gangs following some  of the weekend activities in the town, Inspector John Dunn Chief of Blackpool C.I.D. said  ”They seem unconscious of how ridiculous they look in their drainpipe trousers, light socks, long jackets with flattering padded shoulders and effeminate mops of hair”.

Blackpool Gazette & Herald, May 15th 1954.



The town of Reading reported that a War on Edwardian hooligans was declared, alarmed by the increase of gangs roaming the street, the Police will combat very rigorously, attempts to create disturbances. “Dance hall owners may take unified action”, said one owner, “The time has come to ban from all dance halls in the town any Edwardian youths and their girl friends”, but the trouble is not so much in the Dance halls as in the Street.

Daily Herald, May 23rd 1954. 


Local Dance in Peterborough 1955 with Roy Bradley (a Teddy Boy wearing a Drape Jacket) on the far right.

COMMENT – insert.


The Nottingham and Notting Hill Riots of 1958. 

A Teddy Boy gets searched by a Policeman during the 1958 Notting Hill Riots in which Teddy Boys were widely implicated, which in fact were orchestrated by Sir Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists.


The most notable disturbances involving Teddy Boys were the Nottingham – St. Anne’s Well Riots and the London Notting Hill Riots, both which took place in August / September 1958. Teddy Boys were present in large numbers during these disturbances and were implicated in attacks on the newly arrived and settled black West Indian community. These disturbances however, were largely orchestrated by by Sir Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists.


2nd September 1958 Teddy Boys and Girls run through Blenheim Crescent, Notting Hill, during the race riots in West London.

The St Ann’s Well, Nottingham Disturbances 

In the summer of 1958 there was a self-imposed curfew for black people in St Ann’s.  Being caught out on the streets late at night was simply dangerous.

On Saturday 24th August 1958, extra Police were on guard as fierce fighting between White and Coloured people broke out in the St Ann’s Well area of Nottingham, eight white people including a Policeman were run down by a coloured drivers car, and taken to Hospital.  Dozens of people were injured were injured by bottles, knives razors and stakes.  One had 37 stitches inserted in his throat, two others had more than a dozen stitches each in back stab wounds.  Police, ambulancemen and firemen with hoses were sent to the scene and order was restored after several hours.


The incident, which  local  legend  blames  for setting off the chain of  events  leading  to  the  riots,  happened  when  a  black man had  to visit the late night chemist to get a prescription filled for his wife. On the way back he was waylaid by a group of Teddy Boys,  who the police were unable to locate. In the normal run of  things  they might have  been reluctant to  back  up the sort of  young black men who habitually got themselves into fights  in pubs and street corners, but this was a story which perfectly encapsulated the situation they were  in. A respectable family man, on an errand of mercy, had been pointlessly attacked and beaten.  This was precisely the sort of incident which enraged the migrants and made them willing to encourage retaliation.

After that incident the West Indians went out the following week looking to see if they could find Teddy Boys to hit back, but nothing happened. And then, gradually, an incident took place at a pub. And the fighting started.

It  would  not  have  been  difficult  to  get  into  a  confrontation  outside  the St Ann’s Well Inn  at  closing time on a Saturday night, and on 23rd August it duly happened. This time, however, there was a group of black men on the scene, ready and willing to fight.  In the first  phase  dozens  of  people were injured  ‘ in a  matter  of  seconds’  but  before  the  police  arrived,  the black  men  had  vanished  into  the  nearby  alleyways.   Eight local Nottingham whites were hospitalised, including a policeman who was run down by a car. To many of the migrants it seemed like a legitimate return for the treatment to which they had become accustomed.

The chap who drove his car through the crowd, a West Indian chap, described  what happened. He was at a party and, as soon as they heard that there was these disturbances at a pub nearby, the Robin Hood Chase, they all decided, Well, we must get there. And he got in his car with a few others and went there, and there was this milling crowd, and he felt the best way, Well, I had better drive through this, and he went through it at full tilt, as quickly as he could. I think a policeman must get bumped on the backside or something like that. And I remember when Roy was telling me, I said, “But, look, man, that was dangerous.”  He said, “I reckon you’re too damned nice, man. It give me satisfaction, at least we can fight back, you know, at least we fight back, and people will realise we’re not prepared to sit and take this sort of thing anymore. If they want to be nasty, we can be nasty as well.”

News of the fight spread like wildfire through the area and, in a short time, a mostly white crowd estimated at about 1,500 had gathered and started attacking black people at random.  By the time the police restored order another eight people had been injured. In the following weeks, the St Ann’s Well Road affray was widely reported as an eruption which symbolised the racial anger simmering beneath the surface of English life. Oddly enough, this was the last large scale racial conflict of its type in Nottingham.  On the next Saturday night an equally large crowd gathered in the district anticipating another ‘race riot’, but no black people turned up, so they began to fight each other.

The following weekend there was another uprising, and that was even apparently more violent than the first one, but the interesting thing, it was only one black person was in the area at that time. And he walked through the crowd of fighting people and nobody noticed him, and had a good laugh.


The Notting Hill Riots


Change in Style 


In 1958, there was a huge Italian influence on fashion and this was the begining of the end of the Teddy Boy as a mainstream style.  Boys started wearing suits with short, boxy jackets (colloquially known as bum-freezers), tapered knife-edge trousers, waistcoats, with white button-down shirts and thin ties, ideally with a matching handkerchief (usually a bit of cloth on a white card, which slipped into the top left hand pocket of the jacket) and with all that, the emergence of winkle-picker shoes for men. This style was to be in many ways a prelude to the Modernist or later Mod style of dress that would slowly start to emerge in 1959 and would become popular and peak by 1963/4.



The Shadows pictured in 1960 wearing the Italian (tonic) bumb-freezer Suits that had started to become fashionable in 1958 heralding a decline in the wearing of the longer drape jacket worn by Teddy Boys.  These suits were generally worn with ‘Winklepicker’ shoes. The mohair tonic suit was later adopted by the Mods of the 1960′s.


There were still some older die-hard Teddy Boys in the dance halls during the late 1950′s; however they were becoming outnumbered by boys who were adopting the new Italian suits. By 1958 the remaining Teddy Boys had started to wear jackets and suits with brighter colours which was due to the fact that new dyes had become available towards the end of the fifties.


Teddy Boy, Bill Evans aged 17 from Salford, Lancashire with his girlfriend in 1959, at the seaside resort of Blackpool, wearing the more traditional neo-Edwardian attire. Bill is sporting a black drape jacket with wide lapels for the date, blue brocade waistcoat with a Chinese pattern, white shirt with slim-jim tie but with much tighter blue-grey 14″ bottom trousers with highly polished slip-on shoes. Bill’s girlfriend is wearing a typical orange circle dress with white sash. Copyright Bill Evans and Julian Lord – no reproduction without permission from copyright holder.

As styles changed jackets had much narrower lapels, more velvet appeared now on the pockets as well as the collar and cuffs and 14″ trouser bottoms without turn-ups became the norm.  This style of the late 1950′s became the template for the Teddy Boy jackets and suits which emerged later during the late 1960′s and early 1970′s.

By 1958 the remaining Teddy Boy suits sported brighter colours with much narrower lapels on the jackets, more velvet appeared now on the pockets as well as the collar and cuffs and 14″ trouser bottoms as the norm. This is demonstrated in the photograph of Breathless Dan Coffey in the photograph below.  This style became the template for the Teddy Boys who emerged later during the late 1960′s 1970′s.


Teddy Boy Stalwart, Breathless Dan Coffey, originally from Newport, Monmouthshire pictured in 1960 wearing a light coloured Drape suit with contrasting black velvet on both the pockets and covered buttons. Note the use of the black velvet buttons on the vandyke cuffs and the ‘cumberband’ style high waistband on the trousers. Breathless Dan was one of the original Teddy Boys who kept the Teddy Boy Movement alive during the dark days of the 1960′s and Rock n Roll music in this country.  Dan was an avid fan of the Legendary Jerry Lee Lewis and along with his then wife, Faye became firm fiends of The Killer, making a number of visits to the United States. Breathless Dan was primarily responsible for bringing back Rockabilly records to Britain during the 1960′s of American artists who had never had their music aired here during the 1950′s.  This then brought about the massive interest and following that Rockabilly music had during the 1970′s amongst British Teddy Boys.


The Dark Days of the 1960′s 


As the fifties turned into the sixties, Teddy Boys became a minority subculture and most youths at the time considered the style old fashioned and were captivated with the Italian look of bumb-freezer jackets and winkle pickers.


Here is a programme made in 1960 called ‘Living for Kicks’ which features Brighton, Tooting and Northampton Teenagers. It is interesting to note that Teddy Boys are alive and well in Northampton in 1960 at the Abington Parish Hall, whereas in Brighton at the Whisky a Go Go Coffee bar there is a mixture of Beatnicks and ordinary teenagers of the period.  A slightly older audience appear at the Castle pub in Tooting featuring Duffy Power.

The key to how the Teddy Boys actually survived during the dark days of the 1960′s lies with what can be termed, second generation Teddy Boys, that is those Teddy Boys who were too young to be Teddy Boys in the early to mid 1950′s but had adopted the style in the late 1950′s and early 1960′s.  These Teddy Boys had been guided by the few original first generation Teddy Boys that were still around, these were the Teddy Boys who had continued from the early 1950′s and were the die-hard’s who were true to the style, music and movement.



Breathless Dan Coffey with his wife Faye circa 1960/61.

The few original first generation Teddy Boys still remaining along with the larger numbers of second generation Teddy Boys then continued to maintain the Teddy Boy Movement throughout the so-called swinging sixties, albiet in much smaller numbers


Teddy Boys pictured at Ilford, Essex in 1960.

One should not get the impression that the Teddy Boys had completely died out during the early to mid 1960′s because they had not, however they were certainly only a minority and not mainsteam as they were in the 1950′s. Travelling Fairgrounds were places where a number of Teds could be found during the 1960′s as many of the older Teds found jobs on the Fairgrounds.


Teddy Boys wearing ’Kiss Me Quick’ Cowboy hats at Scarborough, Yorkshire in 1961. Note the velvet on the pockets of the Ted on the left and the open collars with the T-shirt underneath, a very popular style amongst Rockers in the early 1960′s.


The Rockers and the 1960′s.

A significant proportion of late 1950′s early 1960′s Teddy Boys that were left became Rockers adopting leather jackets and many riding British Motorbikes.  At the beginning, the Rockers were an evolvement of the Teddy Boy without the drape. In the 1950′s the ‘Rockers’ were known as ‘Ton-Up Boys’ because doing a ton was slang for driving at a speed of 100 mph (160 km/h) or over and they rode mainly British manufactured motorcycles.


A group of Rockers at the 59 Club during the 1960′s

The Rocker subculture came about due to factors such as: the end of post-war rationing in the UK, a general rise in prosperity for working class youths, the recent availability of credit and financing for young people, the influence of American popular music and films, the construction of arterial roads around British cities such as the North Circular Road in Middlesex and North London, the development of transport cafes and a peak in British motorcycle engineering.


Rockers at the Fifty-Nine Club in Paddington, London with Father Bill.

The Teddy Boys were in fact considered the Rockers “spiritual ancestors”. The Rockers or Ton-up Boys took what was essentially a sport and turned it into a lifestyle, dropping out of mainstream  society and “rebelling at the points where their will crossed society’s”.  This damaged the public image of motorcycling in the UK and led to the politicisation of the motorcycling community.

Johnny Kidd and the Pirates 1960.

The Rockers (just like their predecessors, the Teddy Boys) enjoyed Rock ‘n’ Roll music particularly Gene Vincent, Vince Taylor, Johnny Kid and the Pirates and other early British Beat of the early 1960′s pre-Beatle era. The Rockers style in the main consisted of jeans, boots and leather jackets. The Rockers tended to decorate their black leather jackets with enamel badges and studs denoting their local gang or their motorcycle type etc. Most Rockers, like their predecessors, the Teddy Boys, were seen as anti-establishment rebels portraying a ‘bad boy’ image.


A scene from the film, The Leather Boys (1963) shot in the Ace Cafe with working class London teenagers Dot (seated) played by Rita Tushingham and Rocker, Reggie (standing) played by Colin Campbell.

The Rockers were essentially from the working class and despised any fashion, other than their own. They each had the same hairstyle, shaggy with a bit of slick to it  or a quiff.  The Ace Café in Middlesex/North London along the North Circular Road was a well known hangout of the Rockers in North London and like many transport cafe’s was renowned for it’s greasy foods and jukeboxes.  Riding motorcycles was of the upmost importance, so they tended to keep away from drugs and alcohol. The motorcycles were also modified or “souped up” in order to be in top racing form.  Many Rockers converted their bikes into ‘Cafe Racers’ and most Rockers had a British manufactured Triumph, BSA or a Norton motorcycle.

In actual fact, two groups of Rockers emerged. The first one identified with Marlon Brando’s image in ‘The Wild One’, hanging around transport cafes, projecting nomadic romanticism, violence, anti-authoritarianism and anti-domesticity.  The second group were non-riders, who were similar in image but less involved in the cult of the motorbike.  This second group who would tend to be more ‘Teddy Boy’ in appearance would tend to wear ‘Castle Top Creepers’ and ‘Winkle Picker Boots’ and either light blue jeans or black drainpipe jeans with coloured bottoms and stripes down the outer seam. The remaining Teddy Boys would tend to hang around with this second group, as most of the remaining Teds were non-motorcyclists.

By 1965 the term greaser or grebo had also become common and, since then, the terms greaser and rocker have become synonymous within British working class Motorcycle culture.


The Modernists or Mods


Mods arriving at Hastings, Sussex aboard their Lambreta and Vespa Scooters in 1964.

The opposition British youth culture to the Rockers during the 1960′s were the Mods or Modernists as they were first known as.  The Mods were another working class movement that were typified by their wearing of tailor-made suits with narrow lapels (sometimes made of mohair), thin ties, button-down collar shirts, wool or cashmere jumpers (crewneck or V-neck), Chelsea or Beatle boots, loafers, Clarks desert boots, bowling shoes, and hairstyles that imitated the look of French Nouvelle Vague film actors.


An early 1960′s Mod was Marc Bolan (later 1970′s Rock Star) seen here wearing a typical mohair suit, round collar shirt with leather waistcoat.

A few male mods went against gender norms by using eye shadow, eye-pencil or even lipstick. Mods chose scooters over motorbikes partly because they were a symbol of Italian style and because their body panels concealed moving parts and made them less likely to stain clothes with oil or road dust. Many mods wore military parkas while driving scooters in order to keep their clothes clean.

For more information on Mod Culture, go to:


The Return in the Prominence of the Teddy Boy and the so called  Rock ‘n’ Roll Revival – 1967.


‘Fifties Flash’ at Northwood, Middesex in 1968.

The difference between the emergence of the Teddy Boy in the 1950′s and the re-emergence of the Teddy Boy in 1967 is that the Teddy Boy of the 1950′s was a youth fashion statement against austerity and the beginning of the identity of the teenager in Britain. As previously stated, Teddy Boys in the early 1950′s initially had no connection with Rock ‘n’ Roll music until it arrived in Britain in October 1955.  In 1967 however, teenagers had already become established throughout the fifties and sixties and the re-emergence of the Teddy Boy was directly connected with 1950′s Rock ‘n’ Roll Music. The interesting thing is that the Teddy Boys who led the revival were not teenagers, they were second generation Teds in their mid twenties and in some cases original Teddy Boys in their early thirties.

In 1967, at the height of Flower Power – mainly a student phenomenon – Bill Haley’s Shake Rattle and Roll crept into the charts again.  Pop’s instant nature is it’s nostalgia; the passing had attained a permanence. The Fifties was the beginning of the period to return to.

The Teddy Boys had lingered on through the sixties, albeit in decreased numbers.  Then all of a sudden from 1967 onwards, the Teddy Boys started a resurgence and were again on the increase.  The style had changed: the drapes were brighter, the drainpipes tighter; hair lacquer had started to replace grease. The meaning had changed too. Teds were no longer the hard-core nasties; that they had previously been seen as in the 1950′s.  They were more like nostalgic adherents to Rock ‘n’ Roll and the Teddy Boy style.

Young kids continued to join the ranks of the Teds. The thirty-year-old old timers, the Originals formed the leadership. Teddy Boys, like Breathless Dan Coffey spearheaded this resurgence. Veterans of the Fifties, they had been there. Respect for age, absent at the start, was becoming a corner-stone of the re-merging Teddy Boy movement.


Brian Rushgrove and other Teds in Bradford 1968.

This heralded a new era for the Teddy Boy movement and during the late 1960′s and especially during the 1970′s Teddy Boy groups and Rock n Roll Clubs and Societies could be found throughout most of Britain’s main cities and towns as the momentum picked up.


Teddy Boy, Ray Flight wearing a plain ice blue drape suit circa 1970.


In terms of the music, as well as Bill Haley’s re-emergence, the American comedy Rock ‘n’ Roll Revival band, Sha Na Na had quite an influence on the Rock ‘n’ Roll music scene singing many Doo Wop songs and Teen ballads as well as main stream Rock ‘n’ Roll in the early 1970′s.


Sha Na Na – from the Streets of New York in 1971.

Sha Na Na were first seen at the 1968/9 Woodstock festival and also gained acceptance and popularity amongst non Rock ‘n’ Roll adherents.  In Britain, the 1960′s band, the Dave Clarke Five produced the Good Olde Rock ‘n’ Roll EP and LP in 1969 where the band appeared as cartoon versions of Teddy Boys on the black and white covers.


It was bands like the Wild Angels, The Houseshakers, The Rock ‘n’ Roll Gang,  Shakin’ Stevens & The Sunsets and The Rock ‘n ‘Roll Allstars that had re-created the true spirit of Rock ‘n’ Roll, by rendering the big success of the 50′s  These bands played traditional Rock ‘n’ Roll favorites such as Johnny B. Goode, Tutti Frutti, Peggy Sue, Be Bop A Lula, C’mon Everybody, Great Balls Of Fire.

There were two South Wales bands however that had started to develop Rock ‘n’ Roll and take the Teddy Boys in a new direction. They were Penarth (Glamorgan) based Shakin Stevens & the Sunsets and Newport (Monmouthshire) based Crazy Cavan & the Rhythm Rockers who had both discovered and started to play Rockabilly music. The other bands in general were not developing Rock ‘n’ Roll music much beyond third rate versions of the originals.  Rock ‘n’ Roll and the Teddy Boys needed something new and it was to be these two bands along with later the Flying Saucers and the Riot Rockers who would provide this.


As former Crazy Cavan & the Rhythm Rockers roadie, Ritchie Gee comments on the sleeve notes of the LP Crazy Cavan & the Rhythm Rockers …. the Way it Was:

“The band looked the same on stage as they did off. Out ‘n’ out Teds!  When this lot came out of South Wales, they were so wild and different to anyone else it was scary! (What other band looked like that at the time?)”

“Sure there were other bands playing Rock ‘n’ Roll in 69 – 70, but most of them were just doing the same old covers and nothing new. At gigs in the early 70′s I often saw Rock ‘n’ Roll musicians turn up in their flared jeans and straight hair styles, disappear backstage and re-emerge in Drapes ‘n’ Drainpipes with their hair greased and slicked back!  They’d churn out all the safe old standards and afterwards change back to what they really were – the sort who wouldn’t get past the door at a real Rock ‘n’ Roll gig.”

“But seeing Crazy Cavan & the Rhythm Rockers for the first time at the Fishmongers Arms in 1971, lookin’ real cool and playin’ wild Rock ‘n’ Roll music to a Teddy Boy crowd, I thought “At Last! This is IT! Yahoo!”



Gene Vincent in England in 1969.

It should be noted however, that out of all the American artists, Gene Vincent probably had a bigger influence and impact on the late 1960′s and 1970′s Teddy Boy movement than any other single American Rock ‘n’ Roller.  This was mainly due to the fact that Gene Vincent had been popular amongst the 1960′s Rockers and had spent a great deal of time in Britain during the 1960′s making many appearances right through until his death in 1971.  Gene Vincent remains to this day a cult figure to Rockers and Teddy Boys.



Teddy Boys outside a Cinema in Victoria, London in  1971, pose for the cover of a budget Contour LP’CRAZY ROCK’ : Ray Flight, Don Dolby and Girl and Driftin’ Den Board.


The 1970′s – the new age of the Teddy Boy and the emergence of Rockabilly music.


A photograph some very smart 1970′s Teddy Boys taken in Chelmsford, Essex, circa 1973/74 left to right: Tony Stutely, Maurice Stutely, Steve Barnes and Jerry Rock RIP.


As the 1960′s turned into the 1970′s there continued to be a genuine nationwide revival of the Teddy Boys, with some being the sons of the originals who had grown up with the style and the music.  However, the vast majority were simply teenagers who did not want to adopt the other styles that were popular at the time. Another reason was the increase in popularity of Rock ‘n’ Roll music and the emerging interest in Rockabilly music and as a result, a number of Rock n Roll Clubs opened up and their patronage swelled. This consequently fueled a big increase to the ranks of the Teddy Boys.


Although the resurgence in Rock n Roll music during the late 1960′s and early 1970′s was initially focused at traditional Rock n Roll, Rockabilly music gradually became the music of the 1970′s Teds. In the 1950′s Rockabilly had been included as part of mainstream Rock n Roll with records like Carl Perkins Blue Suede Shoes and some of the early Elvis Presley Sun Records such as I Don’t Care if The Sun Don’t Shine and That’s Alright Mama.  However few people had ever heard of American artists such as Charlie Feathers, Mac Curtis and Sonny Burgess in Britain.  During the 1960′s, people like Breathless Dan Coffey had made visits over to the states and brought back these records back to Britain. As time went on Rockabilly music gained ground and the British label, Charley Records bought up many of the rights of these Rockabilly records and re-issued them to good effect.



Due to the resurgence of interest in the Teddy Boy style in the early 1970′s; the look was taken up by fashion designers, Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren through their shop ‘Let it Rock’ on London’s Kings Road. They produced many “off the peg” Drapes for sale.  However this was to be short lived and as with all fashion designers, they soon moved on to other styles such as the Punk Rocker styles. Malcolm McLaren in fact went on to manage the Sex Pistols punk rocker band and therefore these people could never have gained acceptance within the Teddy Boy movement as clearly they were simply opportunists cashing in on a style and therefore have to be discounted as far as the evolvement of the Teddy Boys are concerned.  The Teddy Boys were then left with their traditional tailors who continued to produce their suits.  The 1970′s Teds had adopted many aspects of the 1950s style however with a large glam rock influence, including louder colours for drape jackets, brothel creepers and socks.


Fashion designers such as Katherine Hamnet started bringing out drape designs in lurex and this took a lot away from the original Teddy Boy style to make the wearing of such attire no different to stage wear. Yet another example of band wagon jumpers and an opportunist, who used the Teddy Boy style for commercial gain. There were tartan, yellow and orange fluorescent drapes which would never have been worn by the original Teddy Boys. Commercial Bands such as Mud, and Showaddywaddy in the Seventies had given such a bad and distorted image of the real Teddy Boys, that the general public interpreted these incorrect styles as being how Teddy boys should look. Actually a lot of Teds stopped going out to regular clubs because there were so many people dressed in such gaudy colours.


There were a few outlets who would produce off the peg Drapes such as Teds Corner at London Victoria, many of these suits and Jackets were made by East End tailor, Colin Taub now based at Hackney Mews and still a major Teddy Boy tailor to this day.  There were other outlets who would sell accessories such as drainpipe jeans, satin shirts, slim-jim ties, bootlace / bolo ties and buckled belts etc, an example being Lord Jim’s in Bradford’s Kirkgate Market.  They were also suppliers of footwear such as Industrial Trades Footwear in Thornton Road, Bradford who would sell George Cox Creepers and the friendly old Leo (originally from Peckham in South London) would always be happy to assist and give you a bit of discount and a spare pair of laces or a suede brush.  There were also ‘Castle Top’ Creepers which were sold in Stylo shoe shops during the 1970′s.  The 1970′s Teds were never short of gear!


As far as hairstyles were concerned, the 1970′s Teds would tend to use hair lacquer rather than the traditional Brylcreem.  They would also tend to train their hair into big quiffs and huge pompadour’s which could be better held in by the use of hair  lacquer as opposed to hair cream or grease.  Some Teds would use coconut oil as well.


Teds at Wembley in August 1972.

On Saturday 5th August 1972, the London Rock and Roll Show took place and was the first major Rock ‘n’ Roll concert held at Wembley Stadium in London, England in which Teddy Boys would gather together in large numbers. This was a landmark concert where the greats of Rock ‘n’ Roll could be heard in one concert for the first time in the UK.

The concert included performances by major performers including Bo Diddley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Little Richard, and Bill Haley and His Comets. The concert ended with an extended performance by Chuck Berry, who at the time was enjoying major chart success in Britain and the US with his “My Ding-a-Ling”.

The concert was filmed and then released in 1973 as The London Rock and Roll Show, directed by Peter Clifton. Although no soundtrack release occurred at the time the film was made, one was finally issued in the early 2000s, followed by several different DVD releases with different combinations of performances.

The entire footage of the London Rock n Roll Show 1972

The most famous venue in London during the early 1970′s was the famous ‘Black Raven’ which was the main Central London Teddy Boy Pub in Bishopgate Street, London EC2. The Black Raven finally closed its doors on Saturday 16th August 1975, however the pub actually started to become a Teddy Boy haunt from about 1965/1966 onwards.


The Black Raven Pub, Bishopgate, London with Sunglasses Ron and Gang

“There weren’t any groups doing gigs at the Black Raven. It was far too small! Tongue Tied Danny and Roy Williams used to play records upstairs when Bob Acland let the Teds use an upstairs room.The pub got SO FULL that there was an overspill onto the pavement outside. Pretty soon upstairs was full and in its heyday Upstairs, Downstairs and outside was completely rockin’. It really was unbelievable by today’s standards. Somewhere SO SMALL giving SO MUCH enjoyment to SO MANY. It didn’t matter that there were no groups playing in the Raven – we had other places to go for that. What we HAD was a rockin jukebox, a rockin record hop, LOADS of mates, plenty of birds, plenty of booze, a really great time and probably the best cameraderie of any group of people I’ve ever met in my life. The Black Raven wasn’t much to look at……..BUT IT WAS OURS!” (quote from Ray Flight – a well known ex Black Raven regular).


Famous Photograph taken outside the ‘Black Raven’ Pub, 185-187 Bishopgate Street, London EC2 – the Black Raven was the main Central London Teddy Boy Pub 1966-1975 (featured p 18/19 in the Sunday Times Colour Supplement 27th September 1970.


One major event happened in the 1970′s which brought Teddy Boys to the fore nationally, was the ‘March to the BBC’ and this took place on Saturday 15th May 1976.


The band ‘Flying Saucers’ on the March to the BBC in London.

This involved thousands of Teddy Boys and Girls from all over the Country marching through Central London to the BBC studios in a national campaign for more Rock ‘n’ Roll to be played on the Radio.  The campaign was a total success and the BBC caved in and this resulted in Harrogate born Stuart Coleman who had helped organise the march and much to his suprise into delivering a weekly Rock n Roll Show on Radio 1 late on Saturday afternoons.


Teds gather at Hyde Park ready for the March to the BBC at Portland Place.

However, the events leading up to this March and subsequent epic concert recording at Picketts Lock began in the dark winter days of 1975. This started as an idea to gather Rock ‘n’ Roll fans from all over the country to join forces and march through the streets of London to BBC Broadcasting House, to demand more time on Radio for our kind of music: Original Rock ‘n’ Rol, seemed impossible, but after months of publicity, promotion, touring around and foot-slogging spreading the word, the great day arrived and there outside Hyde Park, London. This was an amazing sight seeing thousands of people (over 5000) nearly all Teddy Boys and Girls, all resplendent in their best gear, ready to march, and march they did! To the BBC where a 50.000 strong petition and a taped pilot Rock ‘n’ Roll show were handed in.

After the march, the day was far from over for all those fans who had made the journey to London. The climax of this unique day was the live Rock ‘n’ Roll show at Picketts Lock. For this major event, three of the top Rock ‘n’ Roll bands in the country were to play: Crazy Cavan ‘n’ the Rhythm Rockers, The Hellraisers and Flying Saucers.  An LP of the Picketts Lock Show was made entitled’Rock’n’ Roll is still Alive’.


Rock n Roll is Still Alive LP Cover.

The emphasis on Rockabilly music amongst the Teddy Boys during the period from the mid 1970′s through to today has been a major influence on the whole Rock ‘n’ Roll scene in general.  Although with the current interest into British Rock n Roll amongst the Teddy Boy scene, this has been somewhat overshadowed.


Boppin’ Bill’s Regimental Re-union (London Evening Standard) with left to right: Billy Johnson, Andy Tuppen, Sunglasses Ron Staples & Pete ‘Spot’ Lambert & Colin ‘Chip’ Chippendale outside Lyceum in London on October 15th 1975 following concert with the Hellraisers and Rock Island Line.


During the 1970′s, there were Teddy Boy groups in most main towns and cities throughout the country. This was a great period for the Teddy Boy movement and many new bands emerged notably Crazy Cavan & the Rhythm Rockers who greatly influenced by Rockabilly created the distinctive Crazy Rhythm sound and wrote their own songs such as Teddy Boy Boogie and Wildest Cat in Town. Crazy Cavan & the Rhythm Rockers became the Teddy Boy band of the 1970′s and 1980′s and have remained so till this day.  During the early 1970′s Crazy Cavan & the Rhythm Rockers were not initially accepted by the older second generation Teds. Dell Richardson (Radio Caroline – Good Rockin’ Tonight presenter) remembers when he ran the old 6-5 Club in Harrow during the early seventies, that when Crazy Cavan & the Rhythm Rockers were playing at the club, the older Teds would stand at the back and complain at the then new Crazy Rhythm style, preferring traditional Rock ‘n’ Roll.  Of course as time went on, these self same Teds would become avid fans of the band.

Crazy Cavan & the Rhythm Rockers  pictured wearing Drape Jackets during the early 1970′s have since their formation been the main Teddy Boy band and are still well acclaimed amongst Teddy Boys.

Other notable bands who emerged during the 1970′s who would play Rockabilly were the Flying Saucers and The Riot Rockers.

There was considerable friction between the younger Teds and other cults such as the Punk Rockers in the late 1970′s particularly in London and later with the Mods which re-emerged during the early 1980′s.


The Rockabilly spin off.

Due to the fact that Rockabilly music was from the Southern Sates of America, the Teddy Boys started to adopt the Confederate Flag as a symbol. Many people wrongly interpreted this as being racist, due to the Confederate Flag being standard of the Confederate States of America who had upheld slavery before and during its existence, 1861 – 1865. It was the fact that Rockabilly music came predominantly from the Southern States, that the Teddy Boys decided to adopt the Flag.


There was also a spin off movement with a number of Teds wearing Confederate caps and uniforms during the early 1970′s.  Notably a band called CSA wore Confederate uniforms on stage.

Eventually a breakaway movement that became known as ‘Rockabillies’ emerged. Initially, they were really Teddy Boys who wore checked shirts, jeans, boots and Donkey Jackets with Confederate flags on the back.  A number also wore cheese-cutter caps (as worn by Gene Vincent’s Blue Caps) as many were big Gene Vincent fans.


The photograph above shows a Rockabilly on the front cover of the LP that was published in 1978 by Charly Records entitled ‘Rockabilly Rules OK’. You can see that the hairstyle is combed into a quiff and DA, as worn by Teddy Boys, however the clothing is totally different as detailed as above. There are a number of reasons why this Rockabilly movement came about and separated itself from the Teddy Boys. First of all there were a number of young Teddy Boys who were subject to a certain amount of bullying from some of the older teds who tended to both regard them and call them ‘Plastic Teds’.  Secondly some of these younger Teddy Boys were targeted by other groups who were around at the time and got beaten up for what they wore, so they succumbed to peer pressure and wanted too wear something that brought less attention to them.  The image of the Rockabilly enabled these youngsters to maintain part of the image without drawing too much attention to themselves. A third reason was that, the cost of a full Drape suit was extremely costly to many young aspiring Teds. Also the image of American Rockabilly style fitted this image whereas the Teddy Boy was totally 100% British.

As time went on, this Rockabilly movement started to adopt different haircuts with Flat-tops starting to replace the quiff and DA.  Many would shave all their hair off around the sides and keep a crew cut on top.  This then started to bring about a totally different style away from the Teds.  Most of these Rockabillies however, continued to go into the same pubs as the Teds and go to the same Do’s.  There was commonality through the music – Rockabilly.  For instance most of the Teds were fans of  Crazy Cavan and the Rhythm Rockers and most of the Rockabillies were fans too.  For instance on the LP cover shown above, Rockabilly Rules OK, along with the original 1950′s Rockabilly tracks there are two Cavan tracks as well. Another point is that as the seventies progressed, Crazy Cavan and the Rhythm Rockers wore less in the way of Drapes on stage with many members of the group wearing checked shirts and jeans more in keeping with the Rockabilly movement.

Towards the end of the 1970′s another movement would emerge, the American style swing jive orientated ‘Hep Cats’.  These further depleted the numbers of Teds during the early 1980′s and there was some open conflict between this group and the Teds. The ‘Hep Cats’ will be covered further on in this History of the Teddy Boy Movement.

Despite all these other spin off movements and depletion in numbers during the 1980′s and 1990′s, the Teddy Boys have continued steadfast in their own self belief.


London and Leeds Teds meet up in Central London in 1983 for the Jerry Lee Lewis Concert at the Hammersmith Odeon. Pictured left to right: Spider Ken, Spot, Jimmy Coleman Adrian Clayton, Nidge, Geordie Bill, Unknown, Son with Martin Gravall (centre).

Rock n Roll / Teddy Boy Weekenders

In 1979 the first real Rock ‘n’ Roll Weekender took place at Caister near Great Yarmouth in Norfolk.  The weekend saw some really big artists take to the stage such as Ray Campi, Matchbox, Freddy ‘Fingers’ Lee, Flying Saucers and Crazy Cavan & The Rhythm Rockers and Bill Haley, which was quite unique. The festival included all Rock ‘n’ Roll fans as well as Teddy Boys such as Rebels, Rockabillies, Rockers and Hep Cats and this took place with minimal trouble.


PHOTO:  Leeds Teddy Boys & Girls in a Challet at the first Caister Weekend in 1979. Rear row, left to right: Les Errin, Pete Ewart, Adrian Clayton, Maxine and Dave Johnson RIP. Front, left to right: Dave Williamson and Myles.


As the 1980′s progressed there were more successful Teddy Boy Weekenders, notably ‘Brean Sands’ near Weston-super-Mare in Somerset and Weymouth in Dorset.  Both Brean Sands and Weymouth were organised by the great Bristol Ted, Johnny Hale.  Brean Sands and Weymouth ran for a good few years during the mid to late 1980′s.  However, one major spin off of Brean Sands was the appearance of Bill Haley’s original Comets first UK appearance in 30 years. Later in the 1990′s there were more weekenders organised at both Weymouth, Skegness and Great Yarmouth.


Teds at Weymouth, Dorset in 1986.

Clip from the Great Yarmouth Teddy Boy Weekender in 1994 taken by Paul McQuarrie.

Return to the Original pre 1955 Edwardian style 

Most people who had become Teddy Boys during the late sixties and nineteen seventies had absolutely no idea about the origins of the Teddy Boy movement or how it started.  If you asked the majority of people why they became Teddy Boys during the ‘Revival’, it would be because they liked the style, they liked Rock ‘n’ Roll music and they wanted to be different from all the other fashions around at the time.  In fact many Teds would have a far greater knowledge of Rock ‘n’ Roll and Rockabilly music than they ever would about the original styles of Drape Jackets worn in the early 1950′s for example.  Most Teds would go for the accepted roll collar and half-moon pocket style drapes in varying colours and varying contrasting velvet trim with bolo (incorrectly called Bootlace) ties by way of example.  Most Teds if you asked them would see absolutely nothing wrong with this, as this was the accepted norm and they actually knew of nothing else!  There were exceptions to the rule however and these exceptions would eventually start something in terms of change.

However, during the seventies and eighties due to the influence of the ‘Glam Image’ that had infiltrated the Teddy Boy scene, the original Teddy Boy style had become largely diluted and to a large degree, somewhat lost.

With the establishment of the Swing Jive American orientated ‘Hep Cats’ that had become established  during the late 1970′s, a number of British outlets had started buying up stocks of American 1950′s clothes and importing them in large quantities over into the U.K. These then became available for sale and many ‘Cats’ were then seen wearing original 1950′s Box Jackets and Peg Pants etc. Not all Hep Cats were wearing original clothing of course, and like the Teds, many had their clothes made and tailored after copying original American designs. Also a considerable number of former Teds had either become Rockabillies or Hep Cats which had led to a deletion in numbers of Teds during the early 1980′s. The reasons for those Teds changing their allegances have already been discussed previously in The Rockabilly spin off.

What a number of forward thinking Teds realised was, that these Hep Cats were wearing a more authentic style of clothing, albiet American, than were the current British Teddy Boys.  This then started to set off alarm bells in the mind of some of these Teds - how the hell can we allow these Hep Cats to outdo the British Teddy Boy in terms of authentic clothing, we need to do something about this!.

It was now time to do something about this problem. In the early 1980′s, it was felt amongst a number of Teddy Boys, that they needed to go and research their roots and return to the more authentic original styles of the 1950′s and that this was now far from overdue.  This was initially started by those Teddy Boys who were keen to return to the original more conservative Edwardian style of Teddy Boy dress and get away from the seventies Glam image.

The Eccles Connection with the Edwardian style 


As many Teds from the North West of England will remember, in 1972 the Midland Hotel in West Didsbury, Manchester opened up and became the main venue for Teddy Boys in South-East Lancashire and North-East Cheshire during the 1970′s. However, during the very early 1980′s the ‘Mid’ as everyone knew it, started to go into decline and eventually closed in late 1981, early 1982. As the ‘Heps Cats’ had started to increase in numbers during the late 1970′s early 1980′s, these had become residents at the ‘Mid’ along with the Teds. For ‘most of the time’ these two groups happily co-existed apart from one or two educational smacks that the Teds felt that they needed to administer!

When the ‘Mid’ closed in the early eighties, the Teds and Hep Cats went to the ‘Gorton Brook’ pub at Belle Vue in Manchester. However, many of the Teds felt that the new venue lacked atmosphere and this is when a number of the Teds started to go to a venue in the nearby town of Eccles.

As Teddy Boy author, Julian Lord (originally from Urmston) recalls: “After the ‘Mid’, my mate Jim Lelonik (better known as ‘Skinny Jim’) were lost as far as Ted venues were concerned and we made a conscious decision to go around in our drapes in Urmston, where we both lived as the ‘Gorton Brook’ in Belle Vue was definately not to our taste.  Eventually we found out about the Teds in nearby Eccles, and the next thing, we were straight accross the swing bridge over the Manchester Ship canal form Urmston into Eccles. From theron in, we went with our girls to Eccles and drunk, rocked and stopped over there every weekend .”

However, many Teddy Boys will not be aware that something quite dramatic was starting to happen in nearby Eccles at the begining of the 1980′s, which is not widely remembered or even known about.

This was the start of the reclaiming of the original pre 1955 Edwardian Teddy Boy style, which interestingly came about in 1981 in Eccles, Lancashire. This is a former textile town to the west of the City of Salford which ajoins Manchester to the east.  Eccles was an appropriate place for this to happen because the town had been established territory for Teddy Boys from the time when they first emerged in the early 1950′s. So to see Teddy Boys strutting their stuff in Eccles was nothing new and was in-keeping with the character of the town.  At that time during the seventies and early eighties, Eccles was a place that had changed little since the fifties and was an appropriate place for this to happen.  Eccles Teddy Boy, Ray Ferris was to be the first person to spearhead this move back to the original pre 1955 Teddy Boy style, after co-opting second generation Manchester Teddy Boy, Boppin’ Brian Spilsbury.



Three Eccles (Salford) Teds circa 1981/82 at Mill Brow, Salford where a big Teddy Boy fight took place in the late 1950′s. Teddy Boy, Bill Evans talks about this fight in the book, TEDDY BOYS A Concise History by Ray Ferris and Julian Lord. Bill Evans was actually in that fight. The three Teds sporting the pre 1955 style in the photograph are Dave Cotton RIP, Ray Ferris and Wayne Percival (aka Percy).


According to ‘Boppin Brian’ Spilsbury, it was in late 1981 / early 1982 that Ray Ferris and him had decided to go and research the true Edwardian style at the Manchester Central Library newspaper archives. This was the begining of the move back to the original pre 1955 Teddy Boy style and these Teddy Boys were actually at the forefront of re-discovering their Teddy Boy Roots.

Boppin Brian recalls: “All I know is that it was around 1981/82 that the change which we had being doing the research into started to take hold. .I remember, then young Teddy Boy, Paul Trainor looking like he had just stepped out of a 1954 photo in his dogtooth fingertip drape.”

Paul Trainor remembers: “The first time I saw a rock and roll band – the Renegades, playing at a pub in Ordsall, Salford. I didn’t know anybody there, but during the break, Bopping Brian and ‘Big’ Dave Machin came over and asked me if I was enjoying it. It’s so easy to ignore newcomers sat by themselves, but I will always remember what great ambassadors for rock and roll those two were. Later on that evening I got talking to Ray Ferris, who also made me equally welcome. I went round to his flat later that week and he let me borrow a shed-load of his records to tape. I also remember him telling me about the origins of Teds from the from the early, pre-rock and roll fifties and importantly, about the original Edwardian style of jacket which they wore. He also recommended a book which he had used for research – “The Insecure Offenders”. All this was new to me, so I remember it very well, it was January 1979. I first went to the tailor on Langworthy Road in early 1981 to get a pair of pants made, to match a jacket I already had, and soon went back for a full suit to be made. A lot of the styling was suggested by the tailor himself, Paul Mack, with input from me, but really I wouldn’t have known where to start without this early guidance from Ray Ferris.”

Urmston Teddy Boy, Julian Lord in 1983 wearing, his then, new all black drape, black half velvet collar, black velvet over left breast pocket. Ticket pockets were present on both sides of the drape to complement the straight flap hip pockets. Julian was wearing a much more authentic style of suit albiet with the seventies mix with Winklepickers shoes, which he eventually replaced. He also eventually lost the 1970′s sideburns!

As Julian Lord recalls: .

“It was actually Paul Trainor from Eccles (Salford) in 1981 who was the first Teddy Boy to actually start wearing the more authentic drape.  By 1982 most of the Eccles Teds were wearing a much more orthodox drape suit.  I could only afford one and in 1983 Ray Ferris and I designed my black Drape suit in a pub in Eccles that summer. We all used to get them made to measure at the tailors on Langworthy Road in Salford.  One other thing was that, we all had our hair cut and styled at Pritchard’s in Eccles who did a mean DA – we always called him Mr. Pritchard.  You could guarantee, that if you went over on a Saturday morning there would be a massive cue before you could get your hair done”

Julian Lord continues:

“Eccles in the early 1980′s was a massively secure Teddy Boy stronghold and fortress back then. We all used to go around the town with at least a dozen Teds and our girls, visiting every pub we could until we were ratted. Brilliant memories. At the time Teddy Boy, Frank Hibbet had the first pin stripe suit I ever saw, and it looked damn smart, although pin stripe in the 50′s was uncommon on Teds as it was regarded as an upper class thing then. I remember Ray Ferris in a brand new all light grey suit with turn ups on the trousers. I don’t think it had any velvet on it at all – that would have been in 1982 or 1983.”


The Farnborough Edwardians


Two members of the Farnborough ‘Edwardians’ – Danny Dawkins and Jerry Lunn pictured in 1988.

Notably, another group of then young Teddy Boys from the Farnborough and North Camp area of Hampshire – Paul Culshaw, Jerry Lunn, Richard Wooley and Frankie Calland started to adopt the original pre-1955 Edwardian style. The Farnborough group were also one of the first groups in the early 1980′s to reject the 1970′s glam rock image and adopt the original Edwardian pre 1955 Teddy Boy image to excellent effect.

As Jerry Lunn describes the pre-1955 Edwardian style in his book, A Thouroughly English Hoodlum, when he and Richard Wooley first came accross Paul Culshaw and Frankie Calland:

“There were a couple of others within the group, who stood out. They had longer, slicked back hair, and instead of the casual, summery type clothing worn by the rest, were wearing charcoal grey suits. Long cut jackets with matching, slightly loose fitting trousers, waistcoats and watch chains. Unlike the rest, they had no colour in their dress, and looked very sombre. Both wore highly polished plain black shoes, you couldn’t see the socks, as their trouser cuffs hung just on the top of the shoe. These two guys brought back that vision from so many years ago, yet they were somehow different. They still projected that same air of superiority and arrogance, they looked just as smart and tough as I remembered the Teds from years before looking, if not more so. But, there was something about this less flamboyant look that demanded more respect”.


Richard Woolley, Paul Culshaw, Simon Moon and Fiona somewhere in London portraying the original pre-1955 image.

According to Jerry Lunn, one of the main influences in adopting the authentic Edwardian style were pictures from old copies of Picture Post magazine, along with other similar press cuttings from the early to mid 50′s and the occasional correct image gleened from books with pictures of 1950′s Edwardians such as Colin Donellan and Alex Cruickshank.


Richard Wooley with Paul Culshaw and Fiona in the 1980′s sporting the authentic pre-1955 image.

Paul Culshaw however, as already stated, was really the first member of the group to adopt this early authentic style and he was influenced by photographs from Picture Post and the like, however  another of the old gang Steve Ferrin, had found photos of his dad, who had been a Teddy Boy back in the 50′s, and the pictures were of this earlier style.


The Edwardian Drape Society – T.E.D.S. 


Members of the Edwardian Drape Society with a young looking Ritchie Gee (stood right) with Dixie (stood) and Suzy (seated) Kieth Thorby (centre) in 1993. Other Teds unknown?

Whilst these other two notable groups in the early 1980′s mentioned above at Eccles and at Farnborough had made an impact in terms of the return to the original style, the Teddy Boy scene as a whole was starting to wane in the mid 1980′s and the numbers of Teds were starting to drop significantly. Some had got married and couldn’t afford to go out any more due to family commitments, a considerable number had joined the ranks of the Hep Catsand Rockabillies and some just simply became disillusioned and left the movement altogether.  This then only left a hard core of Teds to continue the movement and those left soon realised that the heady days of the seventies for the Teds were finally over.

However in the early 1990′s something was starting to stir in London just north of the River in Islington.  Two sisters, Dixie and Susie thought about getting the Teds, initially in the London area, into a unified group and improving their image. A meeting was then organised at the Empress of Russia pub in Islington and about 20 or so people turned up and a new Teddy Boy movement was born.


This group was known as ‘The Edwardian Drape Society’ or ‘T.E.D.S. for short, and had been formed with the objective of taking a co-ordinated approach at encouraging those Teds still around to start wearing a more authentic form of Teddy Boy clothing and to reclaim the original 1950′s Teddy Boy style.

Once The Edwardian Drape Society had been formed, it was soon spearheaded by Teddy Boy, Ritchie Gee (who became President) along with veteran Teddy Boy, Frank ‘Knuckles’ De Lacey (Vice President).  In 1993 a new Rock ‘n’ Roll club known as the ‘Tennessee Club’ was also started by Ritchie Gee at the White Hart pub on White Hart Lane in Tottenham, Middlesex (North London) and this then became the home of T.E.D.S.



Members of The Edwardian Drape Society, 1996.

Although credit must go to the pockets of Teds that started to reclaim the original style back in the early eighties mentioned above, T.E.D.S. brought the Teds together as one force and with the media interest in the group, managed to spread the word throughout the Teddy Boy scene and beyond. This is why this group were successful where the others were not in promoting a more original and authentic style of Teddy Boy clothing amongst the whole of the Teddy Boy Movement.

When T.E.D.S. started in the early 1990′s the original 1950′s Teddy Boy look was promoted in a big way and T.E.D.S. have been responsible for bringing about the more authentic style that most Teds now follow today. The Edwardian Drape Society have arguably along with other Teddy Boys, been responsible for holding the Teddy Boy movement together during the last 25 years.

In 1996, a brief 3min 45 sec Black and White film was made by photographer and film maker Bruce Weber entitled Teddy Boys of the Edwardian Drape Society.


The Tennessee Club had a number of venues over the years notably ‘The King’s Stables’ in Wood Green and finally it moved to the Trent Park Golf Club at Oakwood in North London and operated very successfully for a period with Ritchie Gee staging many big and sought after American Rock n Rollers. However the Tennessee Club finally closed its doors in the early 2000′s although T.E.D.S. has continued as an entity even if somewhat underground. T.E.D.S. has now largely achieved its objective and left a legacy, because if you look at most Teds these days, they are undoubtedly wearing a more authentic style of clothing that they ever were during the 1970′s.


Founders of The Edwardian Drape Society, sisters Susie and Dixie with Ritchie Gee and Teddy Boy Paul Keenaghan at The Tennessee Club 2nd venue, The Kings Stables at Wood Green, North London around 1998.

As a well known Teddy Boy from North London says:  It’s great what The Edwardian Drape Society set out to do back then in those days because this had a permanent lasting effect on putting our image right.”

Teddy Boy Promotor Ritchie Gee now runs the Wildest Cats in Town weekenders held at Pakefield, Lowestoft in both June/July and December of each year. Andy Munday now assists Ritchie and Frank and takes a lead role in the organisation of the Wildest Cats weekenders along with a number of other members the team.


Ritchie Gee, Andy Munday & Frank ‘Knukles’ De Lacey at the Wildest Cats in Town Weekender, Pakefield, Lowestoft, Suffolk.

Most of the Teddy Boys around today are third generation Teds and the nineteen seventies was the period that they became active on the Teddy Boy scene. There are also a few second generation and fourth generation Teds and even a small number of new recruits from the current period. Due to the fact that many of these Teds are in their late forties, fifties and sixties, their style of dress has been toned down with the passing of years and is totally different to what many would have worn in the 1970′s.

In addition, there have been a number of other factors that have influenced the current more conservative and original style of Teddy Boy dress of wearing more somber colours and styles. The Edwardian Drape Society (already mentioned) set up during the early 1990′s had a major impact on reclaiming the original style by setting an original dress code standard. In fact at the time, Teds had to wait to be invited to join T.E.D.S. and this was largely as a result of their dress code. For instance those Teds who wanted to retain the seventies style of dress would not be invited to join.

Many Teddy Boys that have continued to maintain the 1970′s style of dress saw this as a form of dictatorship, by what they considered, as a group of elitest Teds who wanted to become the Teddy Boy Fashion Police. However, this was never the intention – the reason was to simply return the style of the Teddy Boy back to the pre Rock ‘n’ Roll - 1955 style of dress, which had become bastardised and become somewhat lost during the annals of time.


Members of The Edwardian Drape Society wearing predominantly Black Drape suits at The Tennessee Club’s 3rd and last venue at Oakwood North London around 2000.

When the majority of Teddy Boys had started to adopt this early 1950′s style in the from the mid to late 1990′s onwards, many started to have Black Drapes tailored and were accused of looking like Undertakers. However, as time has progressed and with more research, it is clear that early and mid fifties Teddy boys were wearing colours other than black such a bottle green, powder grey, brown, navy and mid-blue and checks. Many Teddy Boys are now wearing a range of colours and styles inkeeping with the early to mid fifties period.

Other Edwardian Teddy Boy Groups

The International Edwardian Teddy Boy Association


The Manchester Peacock Society 


The British Teddy Boy Movement Today

The Internet and the access of historical photographs and the interest in the roots of the British Teddy Boy, particularly the pre-1955 era (before the advent of Rock ‘n’ Roll in Britain) has given the Teddy Boy Movement a knowledge that the rank and file of Teds never had previously.  This new found knowledge has given the ability for the Teds to rediscover themselves and where they came from and on top of that, the ability for many of us to recreate the look of the pre -1955 Teddy Boy – 59 years or more later.

As a result of these factors, many mainstream Teddy Boys in the UK have made the decision to return the original 1950′s style and image that the Edwardian style groups in the 1980′s were promoting and more so with the influence of  The Edwardian Drape Society during the 1990′s onwards. In general most Teddy Boys and Girls are now wearing a far more authentic form of 1950′s Edwardian Teddy Boy form of dress than they would have worn during the 1970′s.  However a number of Teddy boys still prefer to maintain the 1970′s image and of course as a unified movement, there is room for these Teds to take their rightful place within the Teddy Boy movement. Although the Teddy Boy has a certain way of dressing based on a common theme, there is no right or wrong dress code that dictates what style a Teddy Boy should be wearing, because at the end of it all the Teddy Boy is an individual and most ostensively – a Rebel!


Teddy Boys and Girls at the Manchester Evening News Photo Shoot, Saturday 6th April 2013.

Despite the variety of styles and differences in opinions within the Teddy Boy movement, one thing is for sure, the British Teddy Boy is likely to be around for a good few years to come and represents the first distinctive style that made teenagers in Britain stand out and be different from the rest. The Teddy Boy’s were the originators of a distinctive Youth Culture in Britain and the first rebels against conformity and conventional style. They have continued to maintain that reputation to this day, standing out from the rest of society – the British Teddy Boy really has become a British Cultural icon!


Adam and the Ants


Vague #7

November 1980 Adam and the Ants ‘Kings of the Wild Frontier’
Tour programme – interview and reviews – Animals and Men – Human League
The Cure – The Passions – The Scars – Another Pretty Face


Adam and the Ants: Kings of the Wild Frontier

Vague is growing a deserved reputation as one of the best about; in fact could prove the eventual successor to Ripped & Torn… It’s got that hard punk attitude, lots of colour… and plenty of spirit. Suffered even more than Panache from being an Antperson to the extent that it sold 4,000 copies of an Ants special on their last tour, and then spent the whole of the next issue slagging them off. Good value as much as anything though. It’s frequently scruffy, badly printed and incomplete, but must be the most regular fast-growing fanzine about.’ Tony Fletcher Jamming

November 9-December 15 1980 Welcome to Vague 7, which is really Vague 5 made into an Antzine (with the z the wrong way round on the cover) for the November tour after the great demand for the original. Terrible capitalists aren’t we? I bet Mark P is turning in his grave… Issue 7 was the Adam and the Ants ‘Kings of the Wild Frontier’ tour programme, consisting of the Adam interview from issue 5, Animals and Men from Vague 4, some other Ants related stuff, the Cure, the Passions and Human League again, and a different colour cover. Here also is stuff from the Ants retrospective in Vague 12, reviews and reports from Channel 4 fanzine and the earlier Vagues, and the Frontier tour report from Vague 8; rehashed from the cobbled together version I tried to get published as an Ants book in the early 80s. The nearest I got to a deal was one publisher who said he might be interested if I re-wrote it as a girl.

Never Trust a Man with Egg on his Face

Pete Scott, in Vague 12 on the original Ants experience: When I first saw Adam and the Ants I felt as if I’d walked straight into one of those weird paintings where watch faces hang limply over tree limbs. The Ants were like nothing I’d ever experienced before – 4 figments of make-believe carefully superimposed on a real setting. Both musically and visually, they were quite unique. Their songs were not just your ordinary, run of the mill rock’n’roll clap-trap – by turns they were gross, violent and beautiful. Maybe best of all, they were also very funny. If you’re a regular Vague reader, then you don’t need me to tell you how good the Ants were back then. Nevertheless they had their faults. In the last issue of Vague, Tom pointed out that ‘their ideology was always a bit dodgy,’ and in retrospect I’m inclined to agree. As you may have already guessed by now, this is yet another bitter, disillusioned article on Adam’s rise to fame and fortune, written by yet another bitter, disillusioned former fan.

I don’t want to waste a lot of time and energy explaining why Adam’s vintage (pre-‘Dirk Wears White Sox’) material was superior to his current output. But with ‘Deutscher Girls’ currently riding high in the charts, and Do It’s new ‘Antmusic’ EP looking all set to follow it, this seems like a good time to look back over Adam’s career and discuss certain aspects of it. This article may well represent my last word on the subject of Adam and the Ants, so pay attention. In the early days, the Ants’ career was marked by instability; line-up changes were frequent. Things were made worse by the fact that Adam had a tendency to base his songs around controversial subject matter. The Ants’ repertoire included titles like ‘Bathroom Function’, ‘Beat My Guest’, ‘Il Duce’ and ‘Whip in my Valise’. As a result, the press soon came to hate the band, and Adam was subject to some pretty nasty critical abuse.

Adam defended his use of taboo subject matter by likening himself to Mel Brooks, the director responsible for such films as The Producers (with its controversial ‘Springtime for Hitler’ sequence) and Blazing Saddles. At the time, the comparison with Brooks seemed reasonable and I went along with it, remarking that Brooks’ work, like Adam’s, has undoubtedly offended a lot of people. Nowadays, when I look back over the lyrics to songs like ‘Juanito the Bandito’, ‘Cleopatra’ and ‘Day I Met God’, I find it hard to understand what I ever saw in them. They seem cheap and nasty somehow, almost like the kind of thing a naughty schoolboy might write to amuse his friends during a rainy dinner hour. Then there was Adam’s admiring references to Nazi concentration camp officer Ilse Koch, his Cambridge rapist mask and his constant use of sexist imagery in the Ants graphics.

I don’t want to convey the impression that I now hate all the old stuff. Despite a few reservations, I still love most of it. I love songs like ‘Nietzsche Baby’, ‘Ligotage’, ‘Hampstead’ (the original Oi song), ‘Redscab’ and ‘Boil in the Bag Man’. I love them, and I wish Adam would honour all the promises he’s made to release them. ‘Deutscher Girls’/‘Plastic Surgery’ lacks impact – the production on both tracks is terrible. So all we’re left with is ‘Dirk Wears White Sox’ and ‘Antmusic’. ‘Dirk’ is an intriguing album – punk rock’s book of grotesques. It explores the dark side of modern pop music with humour and perception. A few of the tracks, ‘Digital Tenderness’ and ‘The Idea’, fall pretty flat, and even the good ones are spoilt by an inexcusably weak production job. But on the whole, ‘Dirk’ remains an offbeat, imaginative LP with much to recommend it. The version of ‘Cartrouble’ on the ‘Antmusic’ EP is superior to the one on ‘Dirk’ – louder, heavier and more exciting. The version of ‘Physical’ is less sluggish and ponderous. It’s also a good illustration of what the phrase ‘Antmusic for Sex-people’ used to mean. ‘Kick’ is a real blast from the past – a scathing outburst of undiluted noise. ‘The Pure Sound’. Screaming guitars, pounding drums – the works.’ Do-It’s ‘Zerox’ was the first great Antsingle and ‘Antmusic’ looks like being the last.

Adam and the Ants speed pop history – The New New Super Heavy Punk Funk: 1975 Adam Ant started out as Stuart Goddard in Bazooka Joe, who were supported by the Sex Pistols at St Martin’s College of Art. 1976 Adam formed the B-Sides with the bassist Andy Warren, Lester Square and Bid who went on to the Monochrome Set, and Max who ended up in Psychic TV. 1977 ‘The first time I saw Adam Ant he had just had ‘Fuck’ carved into his back by Jordan with a razor blade and World’s End was stained with his blood…’ Adam and the Ants formed at the Roxy during a Siouxsie and the Banshees gig. Their debut at the ICA was cut short after ‘Beat My Guest’, which Adam performed in a ‘Cambridge rapist’ leather mask. Then they played with X-Ray Spex at the Man in the Moon pub on King’s Road, the original Sex shop Jordan became their manager and Dave Barbe succeeded Paul Flanagan as the drummer. They also appeared in Derek Jarman’s Jubilee film and at the opening night of the Vortex punk club. The guitarists were Lester Square, then Mark Ryan ‘The Kid’, Johnny Bivouac, and (from ’78 to ’80) Matthew Ashman.

March 4 1978 Adam and the Ants at Bristol Barton Hill Youth Club. March 10 Corsham Art College: We missed the first really hip and heavy Ants west country gigs with Jordan. The former, in the legend at least, sounded heavier than the bikers riot in Salisbury when I first saw them. At this stage Jordan fronted the Ants for the song ‘Lou’ about Lou Reed. We first heard of them after the gig at Corsham near Bath, where our mates, Martin, Paul, Mike and Tim Aylet (of Channel 4 fanzine) first saw them, and they became top of our must-see bands list. This was at the time of their Marquee residency, the first John Peel session and the recording of ‘Deutscher Girls’ for the Jubilee soundtrack. The Ants were generally derided by the music press, most notably Nick Kent of the NME, for being art-Nazis – much the same as Wyndham Lewis’s Vorticist art movement was in the early 20th century. They were first championed by Tony D’s Ripped & Torn fanzine, which featured a collage entitled ‘Oh! How I love the press by Adam (nasty Nazi puerile toilet-boy) Ant’, consisting of swastikas and Hitler’s head on S&M bodies.

Sanctuary in Salisbury

September 22 1978 Adam and the Ants, the Glaxo Babies and the Screens at Salisbury Tech College – where I had just started a building studies course – on the Friday of the first week of term. The first time I saw Adam and the Ants was a riot – literally, the first Salisbury anti-punk bikers’ riot. I recalled the gig in the Ants retrospective in Vague 12: Christine was off being a young Parisian, much to her annoyance (she was even more obsessed with them than me), so I was driving and like a good citizen I only had one drink then went into the hall to see the support bands, the Screens and Glaxo Babies. Salisbury had never seen anything like it. I was used to having exams in the hall, but there we were waiting to see Adam and the Ants; students dressed up punky for the night, everybody from Southampton and Bournemouth, a large contingent from London – some of whom boasted of seeing the Ants 40 times already; most of the London lot looked really young and they had their own style, consisting of cardigans, Ants or Seditionaries T-shirts, studded belts, bondage trousers and kung fu slippers – and there were rather a lot of bikers.

At the time nobody knew what was going on, even when it was actually going on, but I later pieced together roughly what happened. Some bikers went into the Star, which was full of punks including the London contingent, generally taking the piss, and one of them came off worse in an incident involving Duncan, the drummer of Martian Dance (and later Chiefs of Relief). However, there was a United Bikers rally on and after a few phone calls bikers started infiltrating the gig at the college. When there were sufficient numbers amassed, they began picking punks at random and dragging them out to the foyer for a kicking. Martin Butler (who helped organise the gig) heard about the trouble in the students’ union office and went down to try and calm things down. He was saved from a kicking by the Ants roadie Robbo from Liverpool who dragged him into the hall. Then a biker girl was (at least said to have been) stabbed in the toilets and all hell broke loose.

In the hall things were still relatively calm, although there was a generally uneasy atmosphere and the word soon got round. The weekend swinger student punks (Salisbury was the only place the Ants ever played their ‘Weekend Swingers’ track) started frantically flattening their hair and wiping off their make-up. I missed out on most of this because, for once, I was more interested in what was happening on stage. The converted were apprehensively paying homage, everybody else had either gone home or were outside being beaten up, apart from me and mate Howler. The Ants provided a suitably stunning tight and intense soundtrack, starting with ‘Plastic Surgery’, everyone who stayed was bonded together as they did a defiantly long set featuring: ‘Bathroom Function’, ‘Il Duce’, ‘You’re So Physical’, ‘Weekend Swingers’, ‘Song for Ruth Ellis’, ‘Cleopatra’, ‘B-side Baby’, ‘Friends’, ‘Never Trust a Man (with Egg on his Face)’, ‘Catholic Day’, ‘Deutscher Girls’, ‘Lady’, ‘Puerto Rican’, ‘Fall In’ and ‘It Doesn’t Matter’.

You just couldn’t leave till the end and it was just as well we didn’t, as anyone who left early was being picked off one by one outside. I still only just got out in one piece as a bouncer stopped me walking right into the middle of a gang of chain wielding hairies. During a lull in the fighting, Howler and me eventually sneaked out and made it to my Mini unscathed. I was one of the few lucky ones, everyone I’ve met who was at the gig got beaten up to varying degrees, apart from the Scouse rockabilly Ants roadie Boxhead, who talked his way out of it – saying he was a rocker and having a quiff to prove it, Terry Watley who recalled fighting back with a money bag, and Rob Chapman, the singer of Glaxo Babies (who went on to ‘Christine Keeler’ and ‘Who Killed Bruce Lee?’ fame), now of Mojo magazine; he recently told me he doesn’t remember the biker aggro as they left early.

Tim Aylet, who organised the gig, and went on to manage the Glaxo Babies, wrote in his pre-Vague Channel 4 fanzine ‘Sanctuary at Salisbury’ review: While Mr Thorpe walks freely with a murder charge above his head, people die from smallpox and salmon-poisoning, we at Salisbury are here to see Adam and the Ants. The Ants have a long sound-check and the doors open at 8. The disco plays traditional punk rock and most people go to the bar. Both support bands are behind time and have to play short sets as there is no time for a sound-check. At 9, enter the Screens of whom I only see 10 minutes, but will hopefully never see again. They are a 5-piece band and play a mixture of rhythm’n’blues and powerpop. Next enter Glaxo Babies, a 4-piece band from Bristol. They have a weird atmosphere. They are in a class of their own and play fast rock with stops and starts and very individual vocals. The drummer is brilliant but I think they lack any visual appeal except the bassist who looks great. Unfortunately they only have time to play for half an hour so leave out half of their songs.

Later on came Adam and the Ants, 2 guitars, drums and Adam. They start with ‘Plastic Surgery’ and are met with a mixed reaction. They all look great and immediately create an atmosphere. The Salisbury people are obviously not used to good music and some leave after feeling alien to something disturbingly real. Adam Ant looked like a human gargoyle and sings with a clear-cut very sexual voice. Most of the songs are based around the bass lines and are Stooges/Velvet Underground influenced. I feel that there is a barrier between the group and the audience which is the fault of both parties, although is probably intentional by the Ants.

About halfway through the Ants, the Salisbury bikers and smoothies turn up and cowardly drag individual people outside to beat them up. If that was all that happened it would have been just a pathetic punch-up, but when people get stabbed it becomes serious. And when Adam Ant used the situation to prove how disturbed people were wherever the Ants play (even though the situation would have occurred had any group been playing), I was sickened. But misfortune apart, I thought it was one of the best gigs I have been to this year. Adam Ant told me that they have a year contract with Decca and will be releasing their first single in November, ‘Young Parisians’ and ‘Lady’. The album should be out in January. If you are into rock I strongly advise you to see them.

Ants gigs continued in a similar vein on the ‘Parisians’, ‘Zerox’ and ‘Ants Invasion’ tours until pop Antmania set in on the 1980 ‘Kings of the Wild Frontier’ tour; with Vague 7 as the programme. After Salisbury, the Ants toured West Germany and Italy, playing the legendary SO36 Club in Berlin and a Milan fashion show. October 1978 Adam and the Ants’ ‘Young Parisians’ single was released by Decca. To shake off their hardcore punk noise reputation their vinyl debut was more Manhattan Transfer than Velvet Underground. November We made an attempt to see the Ants at the Marquee, I remember Martin and me trying to hitch to London but giving up, and Adam famously led Ants fans from a cancelled gig at the Rainbow to the Music Machine.

November 1978 The Ant Manifesto by Adam Ant: We are 4 in number; we call our music Antmusic; we perform and work for a future age, we are optimists and in being so we reject the ‘blank generation’ ideal; we acknowledge the fanzine as the only legitimate form of journalism, and consider the ‘established’ press to be little more than talent less clones, guilty of extreme cerebral laziness; we believe that a writer has the right to draw upon any source material, however offensive or distasteful it might seem, in pursuance of his work; we are in tune with nothing; we have no interest in politics; we identify with no movement or sect other than our own; there are no boxes for us or our music, we are interested in Sexmusic, entertainment, action and excitement, and anything young and new; we abhor the hippy concept and all the things that surround the rock’n’roll scene; we admire the true individual; and above all the destruction of the social and sexual taboo; finito muchachos.’

Likes: The Slits, Tamla Motown, discs, Dirk Bogarde, curry, Steve Walsh, Rudolph Schwarzkogler, Otis Redding, The Velvet Undergound, The Monkees, Stanley Spencer, Dave Berry, Jane Suck, Roxy Music, tea, letters from Antpeople, The Doors, David John Gibb, early Futurist ideas, Roald Dahl, Kraftwerk, Jordan, Ripped & Torn, good graphic design, doing the Ant (the new dance craze), bad reviews (funny and useful), James Brown, unpredictability, Fellini, The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, Lenny Bruce. Dislikes: Nostalgia-lifestyles, drugs, outdoor festivals, false modernity, the National Front, sloppy journalism (the NME), chocolate, hangers-on, dole queue martyrdom, sexual repression, male chauvinism, bad record covers, bootlegs, spitting.

Young Parisians in Wales

January/February 1979 The ‘Parisians’ tour: January 21 The Ants and the Lurkers at the Electric Ballroom. January 31 The Ants at Newport Stowaways – Young Parisians in Wales: In the ‘winter of discontent’, at the time of the fall of the Shah of Iran and Cambodia to the Vietnamese – In Wales at Newport Stowaways club on the ‘Parisians’ tour we got mixed up in some Cardiff v Newport aggro, after Tim Aylet bravely but unwisely went to the assistance of a kid getting a kicking on the floor, and chucked out by the bouncers before the Ants came on: We’re standing on the dance floor patiently waiting for the Ants to come on, when we notice that the kids dancing keep rushing up to the front and attacking these other kids. Like true heroes (ie. fucking idiots), we stick up for them and consequently get mixed up some local Cardiff-Newport feud.

I remember Tim getting a kicking on the floor. I grab his assailant and explain to him that Tim is alright. He seems to understand so I let him go, whereupon he headbutts me and his mates push me out of the way. Simultaneously, Martin is getting similar treatment while Taz is trying to get Chris out from underneath a table, and Akbar and Rodent are hiding somewhere else. I explain what’s happening to a bouncer, who says, “I’ll teach you to start to trouble,” and lays into me as well. Then he throws me out, along with what I presume to be the Cardiff lot who started the trouble. I recall hiding under some steps round the back when Martin opens the fire exit and calls me over. I’m just about through the door when the bouncer reappears and throws both of us down the steps. At one point we think we hear a shot being fired. Then the police arrive. Martin and I explain about the bouncers beating everybody up. They say they’ll do something about it, then come back after a while and beat us up as well.

After that we give up on trying to get in and make our way round to the front of the club. Down a bit from the Stowaways there’s this group of kids. As we walk past them one of them hits me in the eye. I turn round and say, “I’m not from fucking Cardiff or Newport, I’m not even fucking Welsh” (though I have some Welsh ancestry). Some of them apologise but one still wants to give me a kicking. I imagine they’ve made very good skinheads by now. Meanwhile the bouncers are still going berserk and won’t even let Julie, the Ants manager, in. All I can remember of the gig is hearing ‘The March of the Ants’ when the police arrived and ‘Family of Noise’ when I was hit the second time. In the end Martin and I got talking to our former assailants who told us they’d only come for a scrap and didn’t like the Ants. Then, to make the evening complete, Akbar got arrested for swearing, or more like they don’t get many Pakistanis in Wales and the local coppers wanted to have a go at Paki-bashing. It was my birthday as well.

April 22 The Ants, the Ruts and Essential Logic at the Lyceum. July 6 Adam and the Ants’ second single ‘Zerox’ was released. The Ants’ tribute to David Bowie came in a Futurist photo sleeve. July13-August 5 The ‘Zerox’ tour: July 18 Back at Newport Stowaways club on the ‘Zerox’ tour later in the year, we were befriended by the coincidentally named Pete Vague (Corr) of the Kilburn lot and duly met the Ants roadies Robbo and Boxhead from Liverpool, Longfellow, Duncan of Martian Dance (and later Chiefs of Relief), Steve from Chester, Johna from Bradford, Mark from Newcastle, Ferguson, etc. Our Kilburn correspondent Pete Vague was a hugely influential Vague figure and generally a huge figure, his punk nickname predated the fanzine and his real surname was Corr but he didn’t look anything like the Corrs group (except maybe all of them merged together?).

The first gig anywhere near us was at, you guessed it, Newport Stowaways… In the Mini I told Chris, that if anything should happen to me, get me back across the Severn Bridge before I die. On arrival it’s very quiet, too quiet, we’re not sure if the gig’s still on. I’m quite prepared to go straight back home but this Ants fan Tarrack tells us it’s still on as far as he knows. The doors eventually open but we’re the first in and we discover the support band Protex had pulled out of the tour, so there would be no support at all and another long wait. We sit in the least conspicuous place and just grin and bear it… Then suddenly this fucking enormous great bloke with about 10 others, all dressed in black leather and studded belts, come in and head for our table. The big bloke sits down at our table and says, “Hello, haven’t I seen you at Ants gigs before?” I say, “Yeah, I expect so. You were at Salisbury weren’t you?” “Yeah! Salisbury. The bikers!” “Yeah, that’s where we come from.”

It soon transpires that the big bloke knows Russ, Christine’s boyfriend, a London punk who had ended up in Bournemouth/Ringwood. The big bloke was none other than Big Pete Vague. The others were Duncan, Howard, Mark from Newcastle, Ferguson… These soldier Ants were going round the bar getting to know everybody there. Later we discovered that you don’t do this just to be friendly but sometimes it’s the only way to find somewhere to stay the night. However, the mostly London lot create a slightly better atmosphere than last time… It’s lucky that we met somebody to talk to because it seemed like hours before the new Gary Glitter and ‘Missa Luba’ intro was played. The ‘Missa Luba’ track ‘Sanctus’ Ants intro is from the Lindsay Anderson film If… (see Vague 16). On the Zerox tour the Ants dropped most of their old stuff and played material that would become the ‘Dirk Wears White Sox’ album.

July 31 Exeter Routes: Stewart Home recalled in his introduction to Vague 25: The first time I met Tom Vague was outside Exeter Routes Club. We’d both turned up to see Adam and the Ants on their 1979 Zerox tour. TV seemed like a cool dude – he had a car, a bird and a gang of cronies to back him up if there was a fight. Back then Vague was just a west country thing… I remember Stewart Home rubbing up Pete Vague and co the wrong way by going on about coming from London and not getting on the guest list… We wisely decide against going to the gig at Swansea Circles and pick the tour up again at Exeter, the next night. Christine and me pull up outside Routes where we find Pete and a few others. I ask Pete how the gig went at Swansea and he says there was a bit of trouble… After a short while Boxhead appears with half his face hanging off, followed by Mark with a broken arm and various other casualty victims. Apparently the Circles bouncers had just started attacking everybody.

Ian from Do It wrote a letter to Sounds complaining about this incident. The reply from Swansea Circles was that Boxhead had cut his own face to cause trouble. And then presumably Mark had broken his own arm? Pete gets us on the Ants guest list for the first time, then with financial resources running low we set about trying to get pissed. This is when I witness the best bit of begging I’ve ever seen from Boxhead, who waits outside telling everyone he’s come all the way from Liverpool for the gig and then got mugged. He made a fortune – probably more due to the look of him than the feasibility of his story? There’s hardly anyone there and the support band is just some local punky outfit but it’s a good gig nonetheless. I remember the look of surprise on the locals’ faces when we started dancing to ‘Hello, Hello, I’m Back Again’, and they were even more surprised when we started slamdancing to the Ants…

The best explanations of the Ants phenomena were by Pete Scott. In his review of the ‘Kings of the Wild Frontier’ album in Vague 8 he wrote: At one time being a fan of the Ants was like belonging to a very exclusive club or street gang. Adam was fond of describing his following as ‘clandestine’, a very appropriate word. Tony D, writing in Kill Your Pet Puppy, defined it as an ‘all powerful force’. It was a highly individual combination of energy, inspiration and commitment. In fact, it was unique. Consequently, the Ants were always separate and distinct from the common herd. They didn’t play pop, rock or punk music, they played Antmusic… August 1 The Ants at Plymouth Woods. August 5 The Ants, the Monochrome Set and Angelic Upstarts at the Lyceum. After which ‘Dirk Wears White Sox’ was recorded.

September 29 Adam and the Ants, Classix Nouveaux, A Certain Ration and the Distractions at the Electric Ballroom reviewed by Tom in Vague 1: I know this gig is not exactly a local one but after the biker trouble at Salisbury I doubt if the Ants will every play around here again. I was a bit of a hero before this gig – I drove into London. In the end the biggest drag was queuing up outside the Electric Ballroom. It’s always the same there and at a lot of other venues – waiting around outside gigs is the cause of a lot of trouble. Anyway, once inside it got a lot better. There were some kids up from Southampton and I met a lot of the Ants crowd that I recognised from the Zerox tour. On the whole it was a good crowd – not too many boneheads, the only snag was the beer: 60p a pint!

To tell you the truth I didn’t take a lot of notice of the first 3 bands – I was too busy ligging with such notables as Seditionaries shop assistants, Ants roadies and a bunch of Taffies who beat us up at the Newport gig. The Distractions were a non-event. A Certain Ratio were alright but a bit too cosmic. Classix Nouveaux, so I heard, are made up of the remnants of X-Ray Spex. Their bald-headed lead singer had a good stage presence and they were not too reminiscent of their predecessors. I’m sorry about the sketchy review of the support bands but the main object of the expedition was to see the Ants. So here goes; this will be the first good review of them you will have read (as in favourable rather than well-written). Actually the Ants were not their usual selves – a rift was appearing between Andy and Matthew, the guitarists, and Adam. Since then we have heard from Pete that the aforementioned (Andy Warren) has quit the band, but Adam has supposedly got something really good sussed out.

However, I really enjoyed the gig although it wasn’t a patch on the last one at the Lyceum. After the Gary Glitter and ‘Missa Luba’ African tribal music had built up the atmosphere Adam and the band appeared on the stage. They played old favourites such as ‘You’re So Physical’, ‘Cleopatra’, ‘Catholic Day’, ‘Animals and Men’ and ‘Day I Met God’, 3 or 4 new numbers and a lot of material such as ‘Cartrouble’ that will be on the new LP ‘Dirk Wears White Sox’. Adam always seems to do a different set, the other numbers included ‘Nine Plan Failed’, ‘The Idea’, ‘Never Trust A Man’ and of course ‘Zerox’. For their encores they did ‘Lady’ and more new stuff (or old stuff I didn’t recognise?). If you’re reading this and you think Adam and the Ants are a load of sado-masochistic bondage posers, forget it… the Ants are shit hot live… Vive les Ants, the big white punk hope. Tom, faithful soldier Ant.

November 1979 Adam and the Ants ‘Dirk Wears White Sox’ album was released. After going to London to buy copies (at Rough Trade?) with Christine, we reviewed it in Vague 2: Well, this is it, at last the Ants have gone on to vinyl in album form and quite frankly it’s not too much of a disappointment, in fact it’s quite good. This album has been in the pipeline for over a year now and to live up to expectations it had to be pretty sensational. Like the singles it fails to capture the essence of an Ants gig. The main thing that is missing is the strong bass line. This enables the vocals to come across clearer which is good in a way. However, I can’t help thinking that anybody who hears this album and hasn’t seen the Ants is just going to dismiss it as arty crap. There is a good selection of tracks here but I don’t think the album is very well produced at all. It certainly doesn’t do the Ants justice. They are essentially a live band though.

‘Dirk Wears White Sox’ begins with ‘Cartrouble (Parts 1 and 2’)… followed by a slower more melodic number ‘Digital Tenderness’… The next number is a stage favourite ‘Nine Plan Failed’… followed by a not very good version of ‘Day I Met God’. The only good thing I can say about it is you can hear the lyrics. But side 1 reaches a climax with the cataclysmic ‘Table Talk’ (about Hitler)… The second side starts with a couple of old favourites. Firstly ‘Cleopatra’, which after its exhilarating intro virtually reverts into punk thrash… ‘Catholic Day’ follows with old newsreel dialogue of JFK interspersed with a very laid back studiofied version of the song. This is one of the Ants’ best live numbers but the most exciting part of the album version is the bullet shot effect… ‘Never Trust A Man (with Egg on his Face)’ is a scanty futuristic jaunt… like all Antmusic it is ambiguous though and there is a more sinister side…

Then it goes into the Futurist rant thrash of ‘Animals and Men’, which races through to the Ant classic, in my opinion, ‘The Family of Noise’… On this track there’s excellent use of feedback and halfway through when Adam reverts to the Beatles’ ‘She Loves You’ is very effective… ‘Dirk Wears White Sox’ finishes with ‘The Idea’ which Adam is particularly proud of… It is a laid back track but it comes across well… ‘I could be religious if you didn’t have to kneel down, I could be religious if a god would say hello, I could be religious if an angel touched my shoulder, I could be religious if they set the hymns to disco, like this…’ This album could be so good… I don’t think the Ants will sell out… It’s just not possible that they will go the same way as the Pistols, Clash, Sham, etc, but they could sell out in a different way and turn into an art form… How about that for pop perception?

Antapocalypse Now

‘No method in our madness, just pride about our manner, Antpeople are the warriors, Antmusic is the banner.’ ‘Kings of the Wild Frontier’

December 31 1979/January 1 1980 Adam and the Ants, the Black Arabs and Malcolm McLaren at the Electric Ballroom. We were there at the beginning of the 80s… March Vague 3 stop press: Ants split official – new Ants coming your way – On the latest Ants split, this time it’s pretty sensational, as your up to the minute on the spot Vague reporters noticed at the Electric Ballroom on new year’s eve, a certain Mr McLaren was in attendance. We thought he was there for the Black Arabs (the black disco group who did Pistols covers in The Great Rock’n’Roll Swindle). He was in fact managing the Ants and directly after that gig there was a clash of personalities between him and Adam. Malcolm promptly sacked Adam and the rest of the Ants went with the ex Pistols supremo. This sounds unbelievable but is true nonetheless. At present Malcolm is thinking of doing vocals like he did one time with the Pistols. But Adam, who keeps the ‘and the Ants’ bit, has a new band with 2 drummers – could it be Gary Glitter all over again? – and is bringing out ‘Cartrouble’ in 2 weeks.

Malcolm McLaren relaunched Dave Barbe, Matthew Ashman and Leigh Gorman (Andy Warren’s replacement) with Annabella Lwin as Bow-wow-wow. Adam teamed up with the guitarist Marco Pirroni formerly of Rema Rema, the Models, Siouxsie and the Banshees at the 100 Club with Sid Vicious, the Infants and Beastly Cads. March The new Adam and the Ants’ re-working of ‘Cartrouble’/‘Kick’ was released and then the Ants left the Do It label. April 27 Adam Ant: ‘Dear Tom and Vague fanzine, have just read your rather distressing letter of February 18 1980. I must apologise for the lack of response from the Bivouac, but I have had to move it and get a new secretary to take care of it all and no letters have been given to me for about 4 months. I would be grateful if you would send any questions you want to ask to the new Bivouac secretary at: Wanda, Cathedral House, 1 Cathedral Street, London SE1. My regrets once more, muchos regardos, Adam Ant. Antmusic for Sexpeople.’

May ‘Adam and the Ants: Dear Tom at Vague, thanx a lot for a most exciting and well put together fanzine (Vague 4). Hope to meet up and interview the new Ants on the forthcoming tour. Enclose dates for you. Please excuse lack of time. Am very busy, muchos regardos, Adam Ant.’ May/June The Ants Invasion tour 1980: May 22 The ‘Invasion’ tour began at the Electric Ballroom and The Great Rock’n’Roll Swindle: Forsaking my college exams, I hitched to London; to take some Vagues round to Rough Trade, go to see The Great Rock’n’Roll Swindle on Oxford Street, and get to Camden Town tube station with a few hours to kill before the gig starts. I make a few hopeless attempts to get in to do an interview/avoid paying… get something to eat, then join the queue being viciously surveyed by gangs of prowling skinheads (which is a bit of an exaggeration but not much). Things start to look up when I meet Abro from Manchester and we eventually get into the Ballroom. Once inside I head for the bar… Everybody’s there, except Withie who’s supposed to be giving me a lift back…

First band on is Johnny Bivouac’s Lastarza… they’re fresh and entertaining but apart from that all you can say is they’re like the Ants. Then Duncan’s band Martian Dance have their moment in the limelight… All the band are old Ants fans and this obviously influences them a lot. But if you’ve got to compare them with anybody they’re more like the Psychedelic Furs. Lead singer Jerry overcomes his nerves but not his Andy Warren haircut as their act progresses and the place fills with expectant Antpeople… Returning from a jaunt to the bar, a tape of ‘Press Darlings’ can be heard coming from the Ballroom. We squeeze our way in, Pete disappears into the crowd, me and Kilburn Chris stay near the back… They start with ‘Physical’ and it’s nothing like new year’s eve, it’s new, more exciting… This gig is of course the debut of the new Ants… The sound of the 2 drummers is fantastic… Marco Pirroni is shit hot – if a bit large… The next number is the first from the Ant/Pirroni writing partnership, ‘Kings of the Wild Frontier’. Its thudding tribal beat sends the crowd into real action, although it’s the first time it’s ever been played live…

May 23 The High Wycombe Ants anti-skinhead riot – the Do Long bridge of the Antapocalypse Now: At High Wycombe Town Hall on the ‘Ants Invasion’ tour, the London Ants lot gave the local skins a kicking/chairing and we narrowly caught the last train before a skinhead reprisal attack: After the Electric Ballroom, Pete put up Abro and me at his Kilburn towerblock and we got a lift to the next gig at High Wycombe off the Ants lighting engineer Malcolm Mellows… A lot of the talk on the way is about rumours that the Wycombe skins are going to try to have the London Ants lot. By the time we get there I’m a little apprehensive. We wander around High Wycombe and it seems cool enough. At about 6 we go into this Rastas’ pub. Everybody else thought it was great but I thought it was really heavy. By then I was a nervous wreck, convinced that I wasn’t going to get out of this one in one piece, and I was nearly right.

Once in the gig things start to look up again. The bar’s crawling with soldier Ants from all over the country and there’s hardly a skin in sight. Martian Dance, who are apparently doing the whole tour, do another great supporting set. They are really growing on me. There’s a bit of a ruck upstairs in the bar but Pete sorts it out… The hall is about half full, there’s a funny atmosphere but no outstanding trouble spots. ‘Kings’ really gets everybody going (well, almost everybody). Then it’s virtually the same set; ‘Press Darlings’, ‘Ants Invasion’, ‘Cartrouble’… The Antpeople go mad and a few times I thought a scrap had started. Then there’s a bit of a scuffle and a few sieg heils from the right side of the hall. Adam says, “We’re not interested in the past, only the future and Antpeople!” Then Kevin Mooney joins in and stirs up chants of “Ants! Ants! Ants!” There’s some more verbal exchanges and then the Ants try to ‘calm things down’ by doing ‘Beat My Guest’.

To give the skins their due, there was only about 20 of them but they still had a go. Suddenly there was a hail of chairs from their side of the hall. In response the whole floor clears and a few hundred Ants fans proceed to kick shit out of the offending boneheads. Some of them managed to escape into the foyer, but when the bouncers saw there was trouble they locked the front doors… At one time I thought it was dropping to their level, but we all went to see the Ants, the skinheads as usual tried to spoil it, but this time they were out of their league…Meanwhile, the Ants rise to the occasion, applauding their fans and playing an extra long set. A lot of people leave early to avoid a skinhead backlash but I stay to the end so as not to miss ‘Plastic Surgery’ – putting myself in danger of needing some. Then Emu and me make our way to the station. Pete, Abro and Malcolm were going on to Manchester.

Paranoia really starts to set in as I thought the obvious thing for the skins to do would be to get all their mates and wait for us at the station. But we get there without incident and it’s deserted. A guard tells us to go on through because our last train is about to go and we have to run across the lines to get to it. The train’s packed with Ants fans but suddenly the engine stops. Everyone is looking out the windows back at the platform where some skinheads have appeared (or someone said they thought they saw some?). “Move this fucking train!” Someone pleads. And as if by magic the engine starts up and we’re wafted away from the Wycombe skins. The atmosphere on the train was as exhilarating as at the gig, like a battle had been won, rather similar to how I used to feel coming back from football (but of course I’m above all that now). It was a free trip as well, as we all rushed the gates at Marylebone…

May 27 1980 Highlights of the Vague Adam and the Ants interview by Tom and Chris at the Bournemouth Roundhouse Hotel on the ‘Invasion’ tour, published in Vague 5, 7 (in its entirety) and 25. The new Ants, Marco Pirroni, the bassist Kevin Mooney, and the drummers Chris Hughes (aka Terry and Merrick) and Terry Lee Maill (from the Models), were also present most of the time.

Adam: “This tour is unique in that the theme is clandestine. There is no record company backing what so ever. We’re not signed to a record company. There has been no notification to anybody other than street posters and 350 handbills I sent out personally to members of the fan club, and a handbill we had pressed up for the Electric Ballroom… The thing is that every gig we’ve done has been a success, from the point of view that the spirit of the gig has been identical. One of a real good time and kids looking bright faced and excited. They’re not looking that way because they’ve been told by the rock press that it’s hip to be there, they’ve come there because they’ve taken the trouble to find out in some way or another. It’s a great feeling because 200 of them is worth 1,000 of other audiences. This tour is done by local promoters, we didn’t want to play toilets. We’ve been playing toilets for 3 years, toilets stink, they’re shitholes. We won’t change in toilets anymore because, for 2 reasons; one, I don’t like living like a sub-human; two, it’s a shitty awful show, you can’t put on an exciting show, no light show in clubs, and also the bulk of the thugs in this country tend to get their kicks in clubs and it’s heavy and I don’t like it.”

Chris Hughes on the 2 drummers set-up: “It came about when Adam was getting his new group together and in the transition period Adam was involved in recording the rework of ‘Cartrouble’. We went down to a studio in Wales and we talked about Adam’s ideas, having a tribal influence in music. He’s heavily into Burundi and I had some Burundi tapes. We discussed the approach the drums should have and did ‘Cartrouble’, which is a question of arriving at the right formula on the drums.” Tom: “Nothing to do with Gary Glitter?” Chris Hughes: “No, if you listen to Mike Leander’s production it doesn’t actually sound like two kits that much. But drums-wise, Adam and Marco came over and we did some demos. Then it was a question of finding two drummers, Marco knew Terry because he’d been in groups with him and we all got together in London. It was just one kit originally, I wasn’t going to play, I was just producing.”

Adam: “It’s been the hardest period in my career, overnight they split and consequently I couldn’t get out there and play to the kids. The Electric Ballroom was a triumph for us. I was faced with a large amount of bills to pay off, then I just went round to Marco’s house because I’ve always liked his sound. And I said I want to collaborate with you; not just having you playing guitar but I want to write with you. I thought the time had come to collaborate with another sound and another mind. We got together and started to write stuff. Any old numbers that are in the set are purely because Marco said they’re alright, we can do something with them. They are radically different. We were looking for a new approach to it, with two drummers it has to be different, I mean ‘Beat My Guest’, now it kills, ‘Fat Fun’ is lethal. And songs like ‘Press Darlings’, it’s very ironic but record companies are very interested in it as a single. They find it commercial, purely because these guys are playing. It’s never been played before, it’s the difference between the men and the boys… it’s a totally different world, I don’t want to get into a bitching match about the old band, I wish them all the best. That’s history to me, but the two records we’ve made since prove it. I wish to Christ I’d had these guys on the album because it would have been one fuck of an album.” Chris Johnson says he was disappointed by ‘Dirk Wears White Sox’ after the Ants live.

Adam: “I see it as the best album ever made… That happened quite a lot, but I had wanted that. I decided that when I got down to produce the album. I mean the sound you were hearing live might not necessarily have been the sound I wanted you to hear. With no major record company backing you have to struggle. I would have liked the songs to have been a lot more clear in every respect, and consequently when I got into the studio I discovered that songs we had been whacking out merrily for 2 years, we didn’t even know how to fucking play, we knew how to play them but they were wrong, they were beats out. And psychologically I’d gone through a very heavy period, 3 years is a long time. I can’t really listen to the album, it’s painful to listen to for me… I think it will develop with time, people will look back on it as something they want, it’s catalogue, it’s something you make. I hadn’t hit upon the Ants sound but now we’re either there or fucking close to hitting the sound. I want to make records that people go Ants, can’t be anybody else… I don’t think a group like Kiss or Alice Cooper are capable of reproducing their live sound on record. The Sex Pistols are the best example of that, Marco and I are early Sex Pistols fans, I didn’t have to hear a Sex Pistols record, just seeing them once changed my life…”

Adam on the ‘ANTS’ re-working of the Village People disco hit ‘YMCA’: “That’s just fun. It’s for an encore, to make people happy and jump about and fuck each other. The new songs that Marco and I have been knocking out, the first one is ‘Kings’ which is a fucking good start… The past is finished. I have to get away from it or I might as well get out of the business right now. We do the old songs but we do them better now. I’m concerned more with the future, rather than the ska revival, which is fine in that it makes a lot of people happy, but it’s still going backwards. I think ‘Kings’ is the best lyric I’ve ever written in my life. It’s looking at the situation now. I don’t want to make any comment politically. I feel, in my guts, very deep down, very wild. I don’t want to be told not to be wild, not to do things. And to be told that my records are uncommercial because they’re not the sausage machine a la UK Subs. They do what they do well, it’s just I don’t think they’re progressing. I think it’s very easy and I want to get as far away from that as I fucking can and as far away from rock’n’roll as I can… What I said at the Electric Ballroom was that I didn’t want any passers-by coming in causing trouble. I didn’t want people coming to Ants concerts when they are not really into the Ants. I don’t want to be just another one of the groups that are just liked.

“I want them to love us or hate us. I want it clandestine. An Ant kid once wrote to me and said, to him, an Ants concert wasn’t a concert, it was an event, it was a meeting of the clans. Kids from different areas that were into one idea and know there is a group on who are going to give 100%. They’re going to achieve purely by their own efforts a great night and not allow anyone to fuck it up for them. So, consequently when I said that at the Ballroom it had been eating away at my guts. I’ve been constantly compared to these groups like the Upstarts. Promoters say, oh the Ants, they’re just like these groups. And I ain’t mate. I ain’t no fucking Toyah. Nothing to do with us. The Ants are the Ants and everybody else is everybody else.” Tom: “Who have you got any respect for?” Adam: “Hardly anyone now. They’ve all got too fucking esoteric, just crawled up their own arseholes. Punks have become hippies in the last 9 months.” Tom: “What about Lydon and PIL?” Adam: “John Rotten’s a poet. It depends whether you like poetry or not. He made a very good first single and I haven’t liked anything since.” Marco: “Johnny Rotten and the Sex Pistols lost it for me after they did Bill Grundy. They done it all before that.”

Tom: “What about new bands?” Adam: “That statement, hardly any, gladly doesn’t go right across the board. There are some really good young bands starting up, Martian Dance who we’ve got on with us, Animals and Men, a band called Orange Cardigans who sent me a tape. These bands are coming up with some good ideas and they’ve also got their act together very well. They don’t sell themselves short. Their graphics are good, presentation is good, they take a lot of care. There’s another band I really like, who I’m getting to support us in Scotland, called the Flowers. I’m more interested in them because they’re a lot more open than groups like Bauhaus and the Psychedelic Furs, who I think are like 5th rate Banshees-cum-Velvet Underground impersonators doing some sort of Bowie impersonation, and Toyah too. Just Bowie impersonators, both male and female, it’s very sad for music.” Marco: “Bowie did it all much better anyway.”

I unwisely say: “The album got some good reviews.” Adam: “The album was fucking slagged off, what are you talking about?” Tom: “What about Record Mirror?” Adam: “Pete Scott likes the fucking group. He hated us then he had the guts to come and see us live again on the ‘Zerox’ tour and wrote me a letter saying he’d made a big mistake, and that takes a lot of guts. Songs like ‘Press Darlings’ aren’t about Pete Scott and people like you. I’m glad to see you’ve got it together this much, I’d buy that (Vague 4), that’s worth the money.” (20p) Then Chris Johnson incites Adam into another great blast at the music press with: “How did this mutual hatred between you and the press come about?” Adam: “It isn’t a mutual hatred. Look, if I came up to you in the street and said, ‘You’re a fascist,’ but I said it 250,000 times, I tell you man, I’m going to knock Nick Kent out one day. And there’s no way he’s gonna get out of it, unless he publicly apologises. He upset my mother, my family, and me, and I don’t like that. I also think they’re lazy, bad at their jobs; that is the most unforgivable thing, they’re just bad at their jobs, they’re useless. It’s old hat. I’m going to bring out a record and if it goes into the charts it’s going to be 250,000 people who know exactly what I think of those arseholes for the rest of time. Their comments about me lasted one week. Mine about them will last till the day they fucking die…”

Chris Hughes: “I think there’s a lot of point in doing a fanzine, provided you convey accurate information, if you can get a fairly accurate impression of what we’re about and secondly you’ve got to show NME and all the arsehole papers how to write. As soon as it goes to print there’s a different value to those words and you’ve got a lot of impressionable kids reading it. You’ve got to make sure you’re being more accurate and precise than the stuff you don’t appreciate from Fleet Street.” Adam: “I don’t think this is very different from In The City, I know the guys that do it, they research hard, they spend a lot of money on this sort of format. This paper will eventually get through to the general public, they’ll say what the fuck’s this about and look at it. It’s like when you make a record, who do you make it for? Your fans or everybody? I make it for everybody. The reason why everybody knocks In The City, especially Tony D of Ripped & Torn and Kill Your Pet Puppy fame, he used to have a sense of humour, now it’s worse than the worst political hippy magazine. Keep politics out of art. Ask us a good question.”

Tom: “How do you feel about all these kids coming up the road covered in Ants badges, have they got an identity of their own?” Adam: “I don’t know, maybe more the merrier. When I see them the bulk of the girls look like Jordan and whatever else they are they are not Jordan. It’s not imitation. My favourite clothes are the clothes the Sex Pistols wore, and Marco’s too. I’d cross the sea on a Shetland pony to get an original Sex T-shirt, that doesn’t make me a Sex Pistols clone. I might go and see a movie and see something I like and I’ll incorporate that into the Ants. I haven’t got divine inspiration. Those kids come to a gig and they see one thing or maybe two or maybe the whole fucking lot and they follow it through, they’re not clones.”

Chris Hughes: “One of the original mottos of punk was no heroes, I personally never aligned myself to that, I’ve always had heroes and always will have. When your hero does something that you don’t agree with and realising that, that is part of growing up. You don’t get 40 year old people idolising pop stars because they’ve experienced a lot more. Older people may well have heroes but they’re more capable of assessing when their hero does something they don’t like. You’re a lot most impressionable when you’re young. An Ant fan might at 13 take everything Adam says as gospel but at 20 he won’t take everything as correct.” Adam: “I don’t believe in preaching, I think it’s boring. I’ve tried never to preach. Every interview I’ve ever done has been answers to questions, which is purely my opinion, my opinion may be a whole load of bullshit, probably is, but at the time I’m asked a question, I think about it and I tell you what I feel. Like I’ve always said, if I give you pleasure, great, if I don’t, fine. I’m going to enjoy myself tonight and nothing’s going to stop me…”

Bournemouth was a great gig – there was a somewhat friendlier atmosphere than at High Wycombe and the best crowd in the Village Bowl for ages, with a lot of old faces tempted out by the Ants. But the gig was marred by the death of the local punk Janet Heyworth, known as ‘Gannet’, apparently from an asthma attack brought on by sniffing Zoff cleaning fluid. We tried to put the Ants on in Bournemouth again on the next tour but Adam decided against it out of respect to her family… As we drive back to Simon’s, I remember seeing Steve from Chester making his way down to the pier, where apparently him and the Harrow lot spent the night in some chalets… May 28 Bristol Tiffanys: Withie and Puddle pick up Jane and me in Mere and we set off for Bristol with some apprehension… However the evening passes off without incident apart from someone having a go at Ralph from Animals and Men…

May 31 Middlesbrough Rock Garden: On our furthest expedition north yet, Marco Pirroni saved our bacon when he stopped the bouncers throwing us to the anti-Cockney (anyone south of Boro) mob outside: After an arduous drive Withie and I arrive in Middlesbrough with a couple of local lads that we picked up at the last services – which proved to be a good move… We all meet up in the pub next to the Rock Garden, all 3 carloads of us; including Bradford Chris who used to live in Bournemouth and Johna, Pete, Boxhead and Abro. The atmosphere’s not very good. Once in the Rock Garden our small contingent huddled protectively around the bar. Martian Dance are virtually canned off… Then the Ants get similar treatment but the crowd doesn’t get the same response. After being gobbed at, Kevin Mooney goes mental, swinging his bass around Sid Vicious style. “Don’t mess with Kevin, he means business,” Adam warns. But the stick continues and it shows on the Ants’ usually faultless performance. Adam leaves the stage calling the Middlesbrough punters a bunch of punky Crass fans, to put it politely.

It’s alright for him though, he’s got security guards and bouncers to see him out safely, we’ve only got the swiftness of our legs, and the natives are definitely not friendly. To show how much they appreciate our presence, they sing “We hate the Cockneys.” And in Middlesbrough we’re all Cockneys, although we live 100 miles from London and most of us come from Bradford, Manchester and Liverpool. Johna from Bradford gets a battering and then he’s chucked out by the bouncers. The rest of us hang around by the stage waiting for everyone to go. We were alright up till then thanks to one of the local lads we picked up at the services, but once he’s gone we’re in the shit. A bouncer grabs me and I have visions of being stuck outside on my own, trying to put on a Geordie/northeast accent, but luckily everyone else comes out as well. Marco nearly comes along too until he manages to convince the bouncer that he’s in the band. We somehow avoid a kicking outside and decide to leave for Scotland that night…

June 1 Edinburgh Valentino’s – on the 200th anniversary of the Gordon riots, led by the Malcolm McLaren of the day, Lord George Gordon: After Middlesbrough, we were welcomed like long-lost fellow clansmen in Edinburgh, with some of us actually wearing kilts (over trousers as pioneered by Adam). ‘Geno’ by Dexy’s Midnight Runners was number 1: We arrive in Edinburgh in the early hours – it’s a lovely morning and the car really stinks, so Pete and me get our doss bags and crash out in the park in front of the castle. After a few hours, we leave Boxhead and Abro to their slumbers in the car and go walkabout. Scotland is surprisingly hospitable, mind you there are more tourists about than actual Scotsmen. Nobody will go up to the castle with me so we go in Burke and Hare’s local to have a jar. At chucking out time the roadcrew arrive and we earn our places on the guest list humping gear into Valentino’s. After which there’s time to catch up on some sleep.

We’re not disturbed until about 6 when the bands arrive. Most of the Ants acknowledge us but Chris Hughes is the only one not frightened of another interview. We chat for a while until it’s time for the sound-check. To finish Adam dedicates a song to Middlesbrough and they do ‘Anarchy in the UK’. Valentino’s is a very small but smart disco with the lit-up floor and everything, unlike the night before it doesn’t fill to bursting and the locals are friendly. The only similar thing is the bouncers but aren’t they the same everywhere? The Flowers shakily hit the stage but when they settle down I can see what Adam was on about. I thought they were a local band but the audience response is not too good. The same goes for poor old Martian Dance, but they continue to play their best gig so far, probably because Jerry didn’t have to dodge glasses for a change.

Boxhead and Abro finish their enthusiastic work on the badge stall and we all assemble in front of the stage. ‘Physical’ and ‘Kings’ gets us going and it’s not long before the bouncers are in action as well. They begin to throw out any hapless individuals who are enjoying themselves too much. This eventually spoils the gig for us, especially when we discover that the kid who was going to put us up had been hospitalised by one of the gorillas in dinner suits. But we still manage to find somewhere to stay. Boxhead and Abro get somewhere in town while Pete, Withie and I spend the night in a haunted old school house converted into flats out on the moors somewhere. After sleeping in a park it’s great, the only snag is when I drop our last fag in my coffee. I remember some of the Edinburgh “wee lads” excitably telling us about a police (pronounced “polis”) incident and not being sure if they meant policemen or postmen.

June 2 Dundee Caird Hall: The Dundee gig was switched from the Maryatt Hall to the Caird Hall at the last minute. It’s bigger than the Lyceum and has to be partitioned off halfway down. When we arrive luckily all the gear has been set up so there’s no humping to do… The wonderful Corky the tour manager eventually puts our names down. Outside the turnout is mediocre in every respect… Once inside we discover there isn’t any bar, not even a soft drinks one, Martian Dance couldn’t play and then the Flowers pulled out because they had to pay for the PA. There’s not even a disco, we had to get tapes out of the car, and there can’t be more than 200 punters there. The Ants come on early, presumably to get it over with. After dancing to Gary Glitter the Scots crowd goes stagnant, leaving us 5 as the only ones dancing apart from Adam. It’s looking pretty bad until 3 skinheads we had met earlier start to have a mock fight with us, and in the end it develops into a great gig, even Kev Mooney is smiling…

June 3-8 Sheffield – Blackburn – Huddersfield – Leicester – Empire Ballroom with Dave Berry: Afterwards we fight our way through the masses of punters to take the piss out of the Ants signing autographs in the van, while Boxhead nicks their food. We leave Dundee in a happy mood but by the time we reach Manchester everybody’s wrecked. At Abro’s we discover that the proposed gig that night at the Osborne Club had been cancelled, and Withie and I decide to head home. We planned to rejoin the tour at Huddersfield Cleopatra’s on the Friday, Jane got the days off work and we went over to Warminster but Withie (the only one with a car at this point) pulled out at the last minute. This turned out to be a blessing in disguise as apparently everyone who went got the shit kicked out of them… July 16 The Ants signed to CBS. July 26 Adam and the Ants’ ‘Kings of the Wild Frontier’ and Bow-wow-wow’s ‘C-30, C-60, C-90, Go’ singles were released and Vague 5 was printed. August The ‘Kings of the Wild Frontier’ LP was recorded. October 11 The Ants’ ‘Dog Eat Dog’ single was released.

November 9-December 8 1980 For Adam and the Ants’ pop breakthrough ‘Kings of the Wild Frontier’ tour I revamped the Vague 5 ‘Ants Invasion’ tour special as the ‘Frontier’ tour programme Vague 7. What could be seen as early Thatcher youth enterprise turned sour was then recounted in gory detail in Vague 8. In a speed pop history summary it consisted of lugging Vagues about the country, sampling the local bitters, slamdancing exploits and sleeping on floors, in cars, coaches, multi-storey carparks, etc…

Once We Were Vagrants – Frontier tour pop vagrancy report: November 9 Liverpool Royal Court Theatre. 10 Edinburgh Tiffany’s. 11 Glasgow Tiffany’s. 12 Durham University. 14 Hull Queens Gardens. 15 West Runton Pavilion. 16 Sheffield Top Rank. 17 Blackburn St George’s Hall. 19 Grimsby Central Hall. 20 Leeds Poly. Lugged 2,000 Vagues up to Liverpool and Scotland, mostly by coach, before negotiating with the Ants manager Falcon Stuart to get them in the merchandising flightcase. Lost my bag at Durham and got nicked for hitching on a motorway between Lincoln and Hull. The college gig in Hull was stopped after the Bradford lot started a fire in a classroom, and we spent the night in a car in Grimsby. After the Manchester Poly gig was pulled, we stayed at the Hulme flat of the Vague American Indian correspondent Dave Hicks and got gassed in his exhaust-pipe-less van. Dave ended up in Peter Hook’s New Order off-shoot band Revenge and was also associated with the Stockholm Monsters Factory group. There were record sales of Vague in Blackburn, largely due to the persuasive charm of Boxhead, the legendary Scouse rockabilly Ants roadie; the first outbreak of ‘Antmania’ at the Manchester HMV store; and various road crew wrangles which brought our lighting whiz-kid mate Malcolm Mellows on to the tour.

November 22 Aylesbury Friars. 23 Lyceum. 24 Doncaster Odeon. 25 Oxford New Theatre. 26 Exeter St George’s Hall. 27 St Austell Cornish Riviera Lido. 28 Southampton Gaumont. 29 Lewisham Odeon. Back in London, I interviewed Martian Dance at Queen Elizabeth College on Campden Hill. Adam’s girlfriend Mandy, the actress Amanda Donohue, appeared on the tour at Aylesbury Friars and we somehow walked through a skinhead riot outside unscathed. At the Lyceum the original SEX shop Jordan was the ‘Antmusic Revue’ DJ. A skinhead with a hatchet appeared in the Oxford New Theatre bar. In Exeter we stayed in the squat of ‘Antperson of the night’ Cherokee Mark. There was another brush with the law hitching to Cornwall with Pete Vague; by which time we were getting disillusioned with Adam and sick of hearing him say: “This one’s for you Sheffield (Doncaster, etc)”, “You showed ‘em Exeter (St Austell, etc)”, and “Are you feeling sexy Birmingham? (etc)” I hitched back from Cornwall through the night to sign on, as Nige from Liverpool got nicked in St Austell; bunked the train back to Bournemouth after the Southampton gig; and hitched back to London with some hippies, to hang around at Better Badges on Portobello with Sarah and Scrubber before the Lewisham gig.

November 30 Cardiff Top Rank. December 1 Brighton Top Rank. 2 Coventry Tiffany’s. 3 Stoke Victoria Hall. 4 Derby Kings Hall. 5 Taunton Odeon. 6 ‘Antmusic’ was released. 7 Bristol Locarno. 8 Birmingham Odeon. 11 Newcastle Royalty. 12 Ipswich Gaumont. 13 Chelmsford Odeon. 14 Canterbury Odeon. 15 Manchester Apollo. After narrowly avoided a kicking in Cardiff due to the intervention of our Welsh mates Frenchie and Stumpy, further aggro in Brighton didn’t come to much. About a dozen of us tried to sleep in the kitchen of the tour support band God’s Toys in Coventry. There were sieg heiling skinheads in Derby, Mick from Liverpool was beaten up and the Vagues sold out. Spent the night in a derelict house by the coach station after the Bristol gig. Heard the news that John Lennon had been killed at Victoria coach station, on my way back west to pick up more Vague 7s and finish issue 8, as the Ants appeared on Top of the Pops. In the days after the Lennon assassination we were back in Liverpool; Stumpy and me signed on saying we were there looking for work. Then we stayed with the Geordie Mohican contingent including the famous Rezillos/Revillos roadie Mitch who had a double Mohican. We bunked the train from Ipswich to Chelmsford and tried to sleep in a multi-storey carpark. Ended up ejected from Manchester Apollo for slamdancing and congratulated by the short-lived Ants bassist Kev Mooney.

October 4 Moved to Walpole Road, Bournemouth. Revillos at Southampton University. Signed on in Bournemouth. London Rough Trade with Vague 6. Punishment of Luxury and Program at Salisbury cancelled. October 11 ‘Dog Eat Dog’ by Adam and the Ants was released. October 16 Signed on and interviewed Bauhaus at the Stateside. October 22 UK Subs interview for Point of View fanzine last punk gig at Stateside/Village fanzine stall. November 2-6 Vague 7 was printed and stapled. Negotiated with the Ants manager Falcon Stuart to sell it on the next Ants tour as the programme. November 7 London Better Badges to get inserts. November 9 The Ants Frontier tour began in Liverpool.

Tom Vague
(Vague Publishing, 1980)

Duke Reid the Trojan


Duke Reid the Trojan


From Daily Gleaner, February 3, 1956

Can you imagine grabbing a Red Stripe and heading into this dance at Shady Grove in 1956? Duke Reid, Coxsone Dodd, Admiral Comic (or here, Kosmic)–what a night this must have been! It was 1956, before ska, so these sound system operators were spinning “rock ‘n roll” as the advertisement states–rhythm and blues secured from American. We know that Duke Reid and Coxsone traveled to the U.S. to obtain their records, but others purchased them from the sailors coming from the states in the ship yard. I wanted to take the opportunity in this blog to talk a little bit about Duke Reid, the one who helped to start it all, and share some advertisements I found from the Daily Gleaner that I find fascinating and hope you will too.

First of all, let me give a little background on Duke Reid, for those who might not be familiar with this Jamaican music hero. This passage from the Jamaica Gleaner, October 1, 1995, was written by journalist Balford Henry:



Arthur Stanley Reid was born in Black Rock, Portland, May 14,1923 [most accounts have his birth as July 21, 1915] . Although his birth certificate shows his mother’s name as Catherine Pearce, there is only a dash where his father’s name was supposed to be. After school, Reid moved to Kingston and joined the police. While in the force he met Lucille Homil and they married. He was kicked out of the police force when his superiors realised that he had moved in with his mother-in-law and was helping to run a grocery on Beeston Street. However, the 30 pounds they paid him off with, turned out to be a blessing in disguise, as he bought a couple of speaker boxes and started playing music outside the store. Friends encouraged him to go into music fully, and he eventually challenged and beat the then sound system King, Tom, the Great Sebastian. Tom moved uptown to the Silver Slipper Club in Cross Roads after this, leaving downtown at the mercy of the new champion sound system -Duke Reid, The Trojan. 

Reid beat back the challenge of numerous other sounds, until he was humiliated by a young upstart named Clement “Sir Coxsone Downbeat” Dodd, who had travelled abroad as a farm worker and returned with some exclusives, including Roscoe Brown’s “Mr. Berry,” Coxsone’s virtual theme song. But, Reid also went on a hunt for the songs in the United States. It was difficult because, like other sound system operators, Dodd had scratched the name from the label. This meant that Reid had to listen to thousands of songs until he found it. Anthony (Duke Reid’s son) said that when his father, eventually, found the record in a Philadelphia shop, “he jumped in the air and laughed like a baby.” When he returned to Kingston, Reid threw out a challenge to Dodd, that he could play all his exclusives. The showdown was planned for Forrester’s Hall. Dodd turned up feeling that Reid was only bluffing. At midnight when Reid played “Mr. Berry” eyewitnesses said that Dodd fainted.

Reid returned to the top of the heap, but a disastrous attempt to develop a construction company, which was supposed to have received a contract to help build the Norman Manley Airport but never did, resulted in him having to declare bankruptcy in 1961. Anthony said that his father lost everything, including his sound system. But, he rebounded with a loan obtained through a home owned by his wife on Mountain View Avenue. Reid returned with a vengeance, formed his own labels, built his own studio, and reopened his liquor store after repurchasing 33 Bond Street. When Tab Smith’s “My Mother’s Eyes” was brought to his attention by a friend named “Cho Cho Mouth”, he made it his theme song.

The name Duke Reid and Treasure Isle are still very much identified with the instrumental. Reid died leaving one of the richest local musical legacies, which was still providing entertainment for millions world-wide, excepting that his family isn’t earning anything from all this success.

Duke Reid’s sound system, and Reid himself, was called  The Trojan, after the make of his imported kit van he used to shuttle his equipment. Reid hosted his dances at the corner of Beeston Street and Pink Lane in the early days and then on Bond Street and Charles Street, as well as at other venues like the Success Club and Forresters Hall. It is to be noted that in the story relayed above by Anthony Reid to the journalist that Coxsone’s theme song was “Mr. Berry.” Other accounts, which have been corroborated, have that song being “Later For Gator” by Willis “Gatortail” Jackson, which Coxsone renamed Coxsone’s Hop,” and the event is to have taken place at Kingston Jubilee Hall with Prince Buster luring him there.

Duke Reid Sound System from the Daily Gleaner  June 22, 1960


Duke Reid at the Silver Slipper from the Daily Gleaner April 28, 1956

From the Daily Gleaner June 17, 1960

Reid was flashy and attracted attention everywhere he went. He frequently wore a crown on his head along with a red cape trimmed in ermine, bandoliers crisscrossing his chest and two guns at his side, one a shotgun on his left hip and a .45 on his right hip. Sometimes he even arrived to his dances being carried aloft on a gilded throne by his posse. He was known to fire his guns into the air at his shows in a display of his prowess as well as when he liked a song. He was also known to occasionally play with a live grenade. He presented a radio show on RJR called “Treasure Isle Time,” supplying the records from his sound system, promoting those from his studio, and paying for the airtime. The show was actually hosted by Adrian “Duke” Robinson, a J.B.C. disc jockey. From 1956 to 1959, Reid was the “King of Sound and Blues,” known for his rare, even exclusive 78” tunes he played at the sound system dances.

The sound systems had one function in these early days–to sell liquor. Duke Reid and his family owned a liquor store, so too did Coxsone Dodd and his family. Here is an advertisement that shows the duality of the liquor industry which birthed the music industry. Record collectors, what would you give to travel back in time to go to this sale!!?

From the Daily Gleaner, December 29, 1960

I haven’t even talked about the legacy that Duke Reid has left us in the way of recordings, but instead focused here on his early days. Reid produced hundreds of recordings, helping to establish the careers of such greats as Alton Ellis, the Skatalites, Derrick Morgan, Eric Monty Morris, John Holt, Justin Hinds, the Melodians, the Paragons, Phyllis Dillon, the Silvertones, Stranger Cole, the Techniques, Tommy McCook & the Supersonics, and the list goes on and on. Share your memories and thoughts on the legacy of Duke Reid by commenting below. I leave you with this popular photo of Duke Reid in all his glory.


And below is an advertisement for Trojan trucks from the Daily Gleaner, 1959. Duke Reid’s had “Duke Reid – The Trojan King of Sounds” painted on the sides. He not only hauled his sound system equipment and records, but of course, his liquor.

Del O’Connor 100% Violence

100% Violence

I was born St Teresa’s Hospital opposite Wimbledon common to an Irish mother and adopted Irish father and we lived in Peckham Rye until I was five when my step father was killed after being run down by a lorry driver. My mum, younger sister and me, then moved in with my Grandma in Brixton, South London, this was the early Sixties, and it was not a bad area at the time. After the death of my grandma, we moved to Putney in South West London. We were poor, but I remember my early years as being quite a happy child, poverty was nothing unusual in London. My mum remarried and they produced my second sister. Only a few years later, my second Step Father died of lung cancer. Now a single mum, with three children to bring up, we moved to Wimbledon, I don’t really remember much of my early school days. 1970 I was now 11 Years old and started Pelham Middle School and then on to Rutlish High School, ex public school with an armoury, and one famous ex student is British Prime Minister John Major. Here is where i started to become a victim of bullying, possibly because of being from an Irish family, at the height of the IRA bombing campaign.


There was always music playing in the house, my mum loved the Beatles and all the bands of that time…and Irish music, which I could not stand as a kid, but can listen to now from time to time, as it is, after all part of my culture. I only really got into music at about the age of thirteen, but obviously remember at the youth disco’s they would play Ska and blue beat, as I got older I would listen to Slade, T Rex and David Bowie, I went through a period of really being into Pink Floyd, although to be honest their music does nothing for me now. I would say that punk had a huge influence on me, and is something I can still listen to today!! Oi for me never sounds dated and the lyrics to most the old Oi songs still having meaning today, especially having grown up poor and working class. As for what is considered White Power music, yes I can still listen to some of it, it was after all a big part of my life, songs that sing about our heritage and pride, but for the most part I like to listen to 60′s, 70′s and 80′s music, my musical taste is varied!!

As a young man, and like many young men in the late seventies I did not like what was happening to my country, with mass immigration and no go areas for whites in our inner cities. On Sundays I would go to the Last Resort like many of my mates, some of us would go on to Brick Lane and drink in one of the pubs there, people were always handing out leaflets and selling papers for the National Front or the British Movement, both groups spoke of what was wrong with our country and eventually I joined the British movement as it was the more extreme of the two groups. I have been a member of various other groups since, but hold no membership to any group now, nor will I in the future, I am my own man and no ones soldier!!

Ian Stuart was my best friend and the nearest thing I had to a brother, it’s easy for those that never knew him, to judge him and bad mouth him, but Ian was an intelligent and charismatic person who liked a good laugh just like any of us. He cared about and loved his close friends, and he held strong moral values..and he loved his country!! As for his band Skrewdriver, I was a member of the Skrewdriver security team for seven years and its something I am proud of to this day.

Blood and Honour was basically born out of the greed of the National Front, they refused to see a future for white power music, and as such they used their White Noise banner to make money for the national front but were unwilling to really promote and invest in the bands and their music. Skrewdriver and some of the other bands made the decision to break away from the NF, and founded blood and honour, the NF leadership at the time were furious and tried to smear Ian Stuart, but blood and honour has, even after Ian’s death become a worldwide organization.

The white wolves were originally formed to combat the anti fascists on the streets of the north of England, and eventually some of us decided that the only way that the British government would listen to the indigenous white working class was through terror, be it right or wrong, it eventually worked for the IRA, so why not us!! We felt the Government, from whatever party, of this country were, and still are afraid, or just don’t give a damn about doing what’s right for the people of this country, and what was really effecting the working classes daily!! But at the same time I cant really blame someone from a poorer country wanting to come to England for a better way of life, but I can blame the real villain in all of this…government, politicians and the corporations that control them and benefit from the cheap labour….they are the real enemies of the people.

Like anyone moving to a new country it was to have a better quality of life, I had visited Dallas Texas and just fell in love with the place, it was warm and sunny and a far cry from what I was used to, my opportunities work-wise were better, and the cost of living was much cheaper.

How was i introduced to Volksfront, and how did that feel being British in that situation

I had been friends with a lot of the old Hammer-skins and even prospected for one of their chapters but had fallen out of favour, something that was easy to do, the Hammerskins work along the lines of the Hells Angels and other American gangs, first you have to prove yourself, through prospecting. Volksfront had been a brother organization to the Hammerskins at a point in time and they had approached me to help them found blood and honour American division, as I was one of the original blood and honour members here in the UK, a few years later I was asked to join Volksfront and eventually became a national officer and sergeant at arms for for the Midwest chapter. I liked the working class ethic ( you could not join unless you held down a steady job ) and how they embraced their European heritage. I gave up my patch after the group started to change, and after the murder of my friend.

My good friend David Lynch was murdered, with a bullet through the head, while sleeping next to his pregnant girlfriend, by someone he considered a friend of his, and a member of his own group, American Front. That is my belief, and that of many of Dave’s friends, but to this day no one has been charged with his murder. When you read the facts of the murder you can come to your own conclusion. Dave’s murder had a great and profound effect on me, and has over the last couple of years made me question my life and some of my choices, I asked myself, how did I get to this place, that could have been me laying there.

I think my life had come to a crossroads, some pretty serious shit had gone down, and i just started to feel disillusioned, and wanted to get back to England, i have never really been one to plan life, it just sort of happens as it does.

I guess you could say I have lived an interesting, colourful and somewhat charmed life up until now, and am still alive to talk about it. I feel that perhaps someone may learn from my life, when they make their own decisions. That perhaps, before we condemn, we can first learn. When I look and see young people becoming radical, I realise that nothing changes, just a different name, and a different time, the frustration and disenfranchisement of youth. I feel that the time has come to write a book about my life story.

Do i consider myself a hard man? No, far from it, I was a little boy who was bullied to the point where he could take no more, and had two choices in a victim or be a survivor, and to survive, you have to fight!! Yes I have made a living through violence, but am I a violent man? Lets say I am to stubborn to know when to back down. And I will defend my friends and those I love, so don’t fuck with me or mine, and I think you will find me to be a big teddy bear!!

For the future i Just want  to live a bit of normality really, settle down to a peaceful life in Europe. That may sound funny considering the life I have lead. To be honest, I realize now, that all of that hate destroys a person. I know my core values, that will never change, but I have learned to see life from another angle, have fun, be happy, that’s my plan!

This is my own personal journey through life, my aim is not to promote any ideology, but to just tell how is was for me, living a life of violence. I hope to have the first draft finished very soon, while its all fresh in my mind, with early 2014, the planned release date. I will let subcultz know once its complete, so register with their site and stay informed.

 By Del O’Connor.

For all enquiries and to add yourself to the pre orders list email



The Xtraverts formed in 1976 at the outbreak of the punk movement. Creating music in a garage belonging to the guitarist Mark Reilly (Matt Bianco).

Playing classic venues such as the Roxy, Clarendon, the Greyhound and all over Buckinghamshire, Berkshire and Oxfordshire they created a massive following from all over the country with gigs selling out nationwide. The Xtraverts appealed to the skinhead and punks alike and garnered a reputation for clashing with the local hooligans, while often a deterrent, it was also a draw to those fans wanting to revel in the atmosphere and feel part of the Xtraverts Crew.gig

The Xtraverts played with many the bands of the time, such as 999, The Vibrators, The Damned, Visage, The Satellites, UK Subs, Johnny Kidd and the Pirates and many more. They also were part of the emerging punk scene playing alongside bands The Lurkers, The Slits, The Banshees, in 77-79, were regulars in the crowd and sometimes onstage at the Roxy

They released three singles in their early career, Blank Generation, Police State and Speed, which are now highly collectable records (especially the limited edition “puke” pressing of Police State). Their first album “So Much Hate” was released on Detour Records in 1978, and is still available in digital format today.

Their unique sound also appealed to a more mainstream audience, with appearances on John Peel’s radio show, a TV feature with Danny Baker and a show called Twentieth Century Box with Janet Street Porter looking at the impact of independent bands and labels on the popular music scene.

Over the years, many of the band members ended up in prison, however through quick changes and substitutions, the band carried on regardless. The death knoll for the band finally tolled however when singer Nigel Martin was imprisoned in 1980, the band finally naturally grew to a close. Without its front man and driving force, the musical direction faltered and the band members went their separate ways.

Over their relatively short career, the band had underground success with the single “Police State” and were Number 1 in both the Sounds and NME independent charts. While the band was enjoying its indie success former member Mark Reilly was topping the National mainstream charts with “Get out of your Lazy Bed” with his new band Matt Bianco. The Xtraverts past and present were enjoying a heyday that dominated across the music scene.

The band often made the alternative and oi! charts in sounds magazine in the early 80′s, and picked up a huge following, but circumstances and perhaps major labels not picking them up, like contemporaries, the Clash and Sex Pistols, the world never got to see the band.

30 years later,and after the death of bass player Mark Chapman, the Xtraverts, After meeting up with an old mate Symond Lawes, Manager of X-ray Spex and Concrete Jungle promotions, have decided to release some of their material, at the moment busily digging through the loft and remastering, what will always be pure Punk Rock. There may possibly be a one off gig, sometime in 2014…… Watch this space

“The Xtraverts were such a major influence on my life. Of all the Punk shows i have attended over the last 10 years, i have always thought, i would just so love to see the Xtraverts up on that stage. Lets hope that dream comes true, and the world get to hear such classic tracks”

Symond lawes


The Xtraverts are back, punk never dies!

Mark P. StreetWize magazine 2013

all enquiries




OI Music

Wikipedia version of Oi!

Oi! is a subgenre of punk rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s. The music and its associated subculture had the goal of bringing together punksskinheads and other working-class youths (sometimes called herberts).

The Oi! movement was partly a response to the perception that many participants in the early punk rock scene were, in the words of The Business guitarist Steve Kent, “trendy university people using long words, trying to be artistic…and losing touch”. André Schlesinger, singer of The Press, said, “Oi shares many similarities with folk music, besides its often simple musical structure; quaint in some respects and crude in others, not to mention brutally honest, it usually tells a story based in truth.”


Oi! became a recognized genre in the latter part of the 1970s, emerging after the perceived commercialization ofpunk rock, and before the soon-to-dominate hardcore punk sound. It fused the sounds of early punk bands such as the Sex Pistols, the RamonesThe Clash, and The Jam with influences from 1960s British rock bands such asThe Rolling Stones, the Small Faces, and The Whofootball chantspub rock bands such as Dr. FeelgoodEddie and the Hot Rods, and The 101ers, and glam rock bands such as Slade and Sweet. First generation Oi! bands such as Sham 69 and Cock Sparrer were around for years before the word Oi! was used retrospectively to describe their style of music.

In 1980, writing in Sounds magazine, rock journalist Garry Bushell labelled the movement Oi!, taking the name from the garbled “Oi!” that Stinky Turner of Cockney Rejects used to introduce the band’s songs. The word is an old Cockney expression, meaning hey or hello. In addition to Cockney Rejects, other bands to be explicitly labeled Oi! in the early days of the genre included Angelic UpstartsThe 4-SkinsThe BusinessBlitzThe Blood, and Combat 84.

The prevalent ideology of the original Oi! movement was a rough brand of working-class rebellion. Lyrical topics included unemployment, workers’ rights, harassment by police and other authorities, and oppression by the government. Oi! songs also covered less-political topics such as street violence, football, sex, and alcohol. Although Oi! has come to be considered mainly a skinhead-oriented genre, the first Oi! bands were composed mostly of punk rockers and people who fit neither the skinhead nor punk label.

After the Oi! movement lost momentum in the United Kingdom, Oi! scenes formed in continental Europe, North America, and Asia. Soon, especially in the United States, the Oi! phenomenon mirrored the hardcore punk scene of the early 1980s, with Oi!-influenced bands such as Agnostic FrontIron Cross, Anti Heros. Later American punk bands such as Rancid and Dropkick Murphys have credited Oi! as a source of inspiration. In the mid-1990s, there was a revival of interest in Oi! music in the UK, leading to older Oi! bands receiving more recognition. In the 2000s, many of the original UK Oi! bands reunited to perform and/or record. The song T.N.T. by hard rock bandAC/DC features the interjection at the start and in various parts throughout the song.

Association with far extremist politics

Strength Thru Oi!, with its notorious image of British Movement activist and felon Nicky Crane

Some fans of Oi! were involved in white nationalist organisations such as the National Front (NF) and the British Movement (BM), leading some critics to identify the Oi! scene in general as racist. However, none of the bands associated with the original Oi! scene promoted racism in their lyrics. Some Oi! bands, such as the Angelic Upstarts,The Burial, and The Oppressed were associated with left wing politicsand anti-racism. The white power skinhead movement had developed its own music genre called Rock Against Communism, which had musical similarities to Oi!, but was not connected to the Oi! scene. Timothy S. Brown identifies a deeper connection: Oi!, he writes “played an important symbolic role in the politicization of the skinhead subculture. By providing, for the first time, a musical focus for skinhead identity that was ‘white’—that is, that had nothing to do with the West Indian immigrant presence and little obvious connection with black musical roots—Oi! provided a musical focus for new visions of skinhead identity [and] a point of entry for a new brand of right-wing rock music.”

Rightly or wrongly,The mainstream media especially associated Oi! with far right politics following a concert by The Business, The 4-Skins, and The Last Resort on 4 July 1981 at the Hambrough Tavern in Southall. Local Asian youths threw Molotov cocktails and other objects, mistakenly believing that the concert was a neo-Nazi event, partly because some audience members had written National Front slogans around the area. Although some of the skinheads were NF or BM supporters, among the 500 or so concert-goers were also left-wing skinheads, black skinheads, punk rockers, rockabillies, and non-affiliated youths. Five hours of rioting left 120 people injured—including 60 police officers—and the tavern burnt down. In the aftermath, many Oi! bands condemned racism and fascism.

These denials, however, were met with cynicism from some quarters because of the Strength Thru Oi!compilation album, released in May 1981. Not only was its title a play on a Nazi slogan—”Strength Through Joy“—but the cover featured Nicky Crane, a skinhead BM activist who was serving a four-year sentence for racist violence. Critic Garry Bushell, who was responsible for compiling the album, insists its title was a pun on The Skids‘ album Strength Through Joy, and that he had been unaware of the Nazi connotations. He also denied knowing the identity of the skinhead on the album’s cover until it was exposed by the Daily Mail two months later. Bushell, a socialist at the time, noted the irony of being branded a far right activist by a newspaper that “had once supported Oswald Mosley‘s Blackshirts, Mussolini’s invasion of Abyssinia, and appeasement with Hitler right up to the outbreak of World War Two.”

Another subsequent source for the popular association between Oi! and a racist or far-right creed was the bandSkrewdriver. Lead singer Ian Stuart Donaldson was recruited by the National Front—which had failed to enlist any actual Oi! bands—and reconstituted Skrewdriver as a white power skinhead act. While the band shared visual and musical attributes with Oi!, Bushell asserts, “It was totally distinct from us. We had no overlap other than a mutual dislike for each other.” Donaldson and Crane would later go on to found a magazine, Blood and Honour, and a street-orientated ‘skinhead’ club of the same name that arranged concerts for Skrewdriver and other racist bands such as No Remorse. Demonstrating the ongoing conflation of Oi! with the white power skinhead movement by some observers, the Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organizations refers to these groups as “‘white noise’ and ‘oi’ racist bands”.

Mods and Rockers, Brighton Beach Riot 1964

1964: Mods and Rockers jailed after seaside riots

Scores of youths have been given prison sentences following a Whitsun weekend of violent clashes between gangs of Mods and Rockers at a number of resorts on the south coast of England.Yesterday two youths were taken to hospital with knife wounds and 51 were arrested in Margate after hundreds of teenagers converged on the town for the holiday weekend.

Dr George Simpson, chairman of Margate magistrates, jailed four young men and imposed fines totalling £1,900 on 36 people.

Three offenders were jailed for three months each and five more sent to detention centres for up to six months.


In Brighton, two youths were jailed for three months and others were fined.

More than 1,000 teenagers were involved in skirmishes on the beach and the promenade last night.

They threw deckchairs around, broke them up to make bonfires, shouted obscenities at each other and at passers-by, jostled holidaymakers and terrified elderly residents.

At about 1300 BST Mods and Rockers gathered at the Palace Pier chanting and jeering at each other and threw stones when police tried to disperse them.

The teenagers staged a mass sit-down on the promenade when police, using horses and dogs, tried to move them on.

In Margate, there were running battles between police and up to 400 youths on the beach early yesterday morning. Bottles were thrown and two officers were slightly hurt.

Later, on the high street, around 40 young men smashed council flat windows and vandalised a pub and a hardware shop.

Last night, hundreds of young men and girls were still wandering around the resort long after the last train had left.

Police stepped in to prevent further violence and dispersed about 30 youths in leather jackets who marched up the promenade shouting “Up the Rockers!”

There were further clashes at Bournemouth and Clacton.

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Crowd running on the beach

More than 1,000 teenagers were involved in skirmishes in Brighton

Mods explain `Mod culture’

In Context

From the early to mid-1960s young, mainly working class, Britons with cash to spend joined one of two youth movements.The Mods wore designer suits protected by Parka jackets and were often armed with coshes and flick-knives. They rode Vespa or Lambretta scooters bedecked with mirrors and mascots and listened to Ska music and The Who.Rockers rode motorbikes – often at 100mph with no crash helmets – wore leathers and listened to the likes of Elvis and Gene Vincent.Inevitably the two gangs clashed. The 1964 Whitsun weekend violence in Brighton was famously dramatised in the film Quadrophenia (1979).In August that year police had to be flown into the Sussex resort of Hastings to break up fights between the two gangs.

But two years later, most Mods had turned their attentions to the burgeoning, more laid-back, hippie culture. While the harder working class Mods created the Skinhead Subculture

Punk Rock Promoter Ron Watts

Friday 17th November 2006, 30 years since Punk detonated, and I had the pleasure of sharing a few drinks with Ron Watts in my home. Ron promoted many of the early bands, and organised the now legendary Punk Festival at the 100 Club on the 20th and 21st September, 1976. Ron’s just published a great book which documents those heady and (for those lucky enough to have been there) exciting times. I switched on the tape recorder, put some wine on the table and off we went, talking about our mutually favourite subject. Music! I hope people will find this interview as interesting as I did, he’s a top bloke with some great memories.
Rob Maddison, Tamworth, 19th November 2006.
 100 Watts, a life in Music. Written by Ron Watts and forward by Glen Matlock. ISBN 0-9543884-4-5. Available from Heroes Publishing, the Internet (it’s on Amazon) or even a bookshop!

RM) Ron, firstly, why did you write the book?
Ron) I was approached by the publishers, who said “would you be interested in writing your life story”. I thought about it, for about two days, and then thought yeah. Yes, I’d do that, you know what I mean.

RM) How on earth did you remember everything?
Ron) Most of it was in the house, still. I just had to find all the old diaries and booking sheets and things, and it jogged my memory, you know. 

RM) You kept all that stuff, then Ron?
Ron) Well, yes, I suppose you would, really, wouldn’t you. To be honest, I sold some stuff off at auction, about 10 years ago, when I was skint. One thing was the Sex Pistols contract from the Punk Festival, which was handwritten by Malcolm McClaren.

RM) Who bought it?
Ron) I think it was the Hard Rock Café in Central London, to put up on the wall.

RM) When’s your next promotion Ron?
Ron) Well, I haven’t been promoting for a while, but it’s in my blood, and people are expressing an interest in me doing something. I’ve got 2 venues lined up for the new year, look here for news, come February. We’ve venues in Oxford Street and High Wycombe, but can’t say too much at this point!! These gigs are to be known as Ron’s part 1 and 2…

RM) Who are you promoting?
Ron) What I did in 1977. 

RM) What, new “Punk” bands, such as The View etc?
Ron) No. Same bands I did in ’77. Same bands in the same place. Some of them are reforming, I’ve been on the bone mate!!

RM) Who are you still in touch with from those days, Ron?
Ron) Virtually everybody. People from the Sex Pistols, met some of the Clash quite recently, Damned I’m still in touch with, no end of people. 

RM) Glen Matlock wrote the forward to the book and is obviously a decent bloke.
Ron) Glen is a nice bloke, and definitely part of the Pistols, but is his own man.

RM) Did you ban Punk?
Ron) No. Punk was banned around me, and while it was banned at one venue, I still considered doing it at another, the Nags Head in High Wycombe. At the first opportunity for it to go back into the 100 Club it went back in. It’s a false supposition to suggest I banned it. It was banned because the police and Oxford Street traders association objected to Punks standing in queues outside their shops waiting to get into the club. At this time Oxford Street was the premier shopping street in Europe. I’d be getting complaints, so would go out into the street and try and get people to move out of shop doorways etc, but as soon as I went back in the club they’d be back in there. And of course there’d been some real bad violence. When a girl loses her eye that’s a pretty serious thing. You have to remember that I didn’t own the club, I just promoted there. Simple as.

RM) Did Sid Vicious throw the glass that injured the girl’s eye?
Ron) Well, I presume so, the barman saw him do it. He didn’t know Sid from Adam, but he pointed him (Sid) out and told me it was him that threw it. I don’t think Sid meant to hurt anybody, except the Damned! If it had caught Captain Sensible on the head he’d have liked that! Funnily enough I was down at the 100 Club a couple of weeks ago, and Michelle Brigandage, who took some of the photos in the book, was telling me that she was actually sat with the girl who lost her eye. Apparently she was an art student from South London, never wanted any publicity and was broken hearted, as anyone would be who lost an eye, especially at that age. She was only 19 at the time. Michelle was sat with her when it happened, she was her mate, and it’s the first time I’ve had a real chat about it. She said herself that though she accepts that it was Sid who threw the glass, he hadn’t intended to do that. But at the same time, he had thrown the glass with malice, and might’ve done even worse damage to someone else, you never know. So in one sense, he’s exonerated to a degree, and in another sense he’s still a malicious Pratt.

RM) Was there any collusion to get Sid off by discrediting the barman’s story?
Ron) No, but so many people went down with him, to the police station, and said he didn’t do it that the CPS probably thought 250 against 1 and dropped it.

RM) Were you surprised by Sid’s eventual demise?
Ron) No. You know, his mother, Ann Beverley moved up to Swadlincote, near here. She got some money from Sid’s estate, and the Pistols gave her some money. She got a cheap house and a few bob in the bank, and when she’d run through that she topped herself. As for Nancy, the police weren’t looking for anybody else, but we don’t know, do we.

RM) Ron, how proud are you of your role in Punk, and could it have happened without the 100 Club?
Ron) Yeah, it would’ve happened anyway. It might have happened in a different way, but I suppose the traumatic birth it got, and the big hand it got via the Punk festival etc helped, otherwise it might have taken a bit longer. 

RM) Could it have started in any other city other than London?
Ron) I think it needed London. It gave it the credibility. It might have happened somewhere else, and it might have been more interesting if it had happened, say, in Liverpool or Newcastle or somewhere, but it would have taken longer to be accepted, and London would have taken longer to accept it.

RM) I suppose the Pistols, who catalyzed the movement were a London band, and people like Paul Weller, Pete Shelley etc always say the seeing that band is what galvanised them.
Ron) Yes. They were the catalyst. We needed to have them in the Capital, playing in the middle of the Capital. It was always going to be a shortcut for them, you know. So yes, it would have still happened elsewhere, but in a different way.

RM) Whose idea was the 1976 Punk Festival at the 100 Club?
Ron) Mine. My idea, yeah. I approached Mclaren, as I knew that I needed the Pistols to headline it. And the Damned, they said that they wanted to do it, and The Clash agreed immediately, then we had to cast around to find some more. The Manchester bands were got down by Malcolm (Mclaren). Siouxsie approached me direct, although it wasn’t much of a band. Then, the Stinky Toys were volunteered by Mclaren, although I’d never heard of ‘em, and hardly anyone’s heard of ‘em since! Never mind, they got on eventually on the second night!RM) I read in the book that the Grande Piano on the stage got used like a climbing frame. Were you actually liable for damages if things got broken?
Ron) The piano wasn’t going to get moved off the stage. It always stays there. Thing is, you’ve got to remember that it was a running, 7 nights a week club, for Jazz and Blues mainly, and the piano was a part of all that. The owners of the club left me to it for my nights, very seldom that they were there, even. If the place had been wrecked, it would’ve been down to me, I’d have had to pay for all the damage, you know.

RM) Punk 77’s owner wondered if you thought the Banshees sounded as bad as he thought they did?!
Ron) Well, in ’76 they weren’t really a band, you can’t comment. What they were doing was performance art, just getting up onto the stage and doing something off the top of their heads. They didn’t know any songs, and it sounded like it. It was weak, it was weedy. Sid just about tapped the drums. Siouxsie was doing the Lords Prayer and stuff like that. You couldn’t say it was a gig, or a rehearsed act, it was just people, getting up and trying to do something. I let them do it, you know, I might have done something like that at their age. I don’t think Siouxsie really lived up to her reputation, if you like. Well, not initially. 

RM) I didn’t like them, but the Banshees went on to become very skilled, musically.
Ron) Yes. By then she’d recruited some good blokes. She’s been living in France for a long time now, I don’t see her.

Beneath the Skin, Skinhead Documentary

Skinhead Reggae Legend, Harry J (Johnson) dies

Jamaican producer and musician Harry Zephaniah Johnson, 67, credited with producing what is widely considered the first reggae single “No More Heartaches” by the vocal harmony trio The Beltones, passed away on Wednesday, April 3 in his Westmoreland, Jamaica birthplace, succumbing to complications from diabetes; Johnson leaves four children and three grandchildren.

Born on July 6th, 1945, Johnson, better known as Harry J, initially entered the music business as a bass player with The Virtues prior to becoming the group’s manager. Shortly thereafter, he took a job as an insurance salesman but his love for music continually beckoned. He booked time at producer/sound system owner Coxsone Dodd’s Studio One in 1968 and recorded The Beltones. The resultant debut release on Johnson’s Harry J label, “No More Heartaches,” is considered a defining record heralding the emergence of the reggae beat as distinctive from its rock steady predecessor. (“Nanny Goat”, a 1968 song produced by the better-known Coxsone Dodd and sung by the duo Larry and Alvin is also cited as a transformative record, moving the rock steady tempo into a reggae rhythm).

“At the time we were under contract with Coxsone Dodd but he wasn’t doing anything for us so a member of a popular group The Cables took us to Harry J; Harry was new to the business and happy to record us so we broke away from Coxsone and went with him,” recalled The Beltones’ former lead singer Trevor Shields told “The driving sound on “No More Heartache” was totally different; we were like outsiders starting something new but didn’t know it at the time. The song was No. 1 on the Jamaican charts for about four weeks, which was no easy feat in those days.”

Harry J’s next big hit “Cuss Cuss” by Lloyd Robinson, released in 1969, boasts one of the most recycled reggae rhythms in the voluminous Jamaican music canon. The same year Harry J released a succession of reggae instrumentals credited to the Harry J All Stars, a revolving cast of musicians that included pianist Gladstone “Gladdy” Anderson, keyboardist Winston Wright, bassist Jackie Jackson, drummer Winston Grennan and guitarist Hux Brown. “Smashville,” “Je T’Aime” and “Srpyone” an assortment of Jamaican originals and reggae adaptations of international hits, are just three of the Harry J All Stars’ instrumentals that garnered steady play from Kingston’s sound system selectors.

Their most successful was “Liquidator,” led by Winston Wright’s spirited keyboard solos, which peaked at no. 9 on the UK Singles chart and became an unlikely skinhead anthem there. The song’s opening bassline was subsequently featured on the introduction to The Staple Singers’ 1972 Hot 100 chart topper “Ill Take You There” (Stax Records). According to an April 7 report in the Jamaica Observer newspaper by Howard Campbell, based on a 2000 Observer interview with Johnson, drummer Al Jackson (of Booker T and the MGs, Stax’s in-house band) visited Kingston in 1969 and met Harry J who gave him a copy of “Liquidator”; Johnson was shocked to hear the song used in the Staple Singers’ hit and took aggressive steps to collect royalties from Stax but made little progress.

Following “Liquidator’s” UK success, British reggae label Trojan gave Johnson his own Harry J imprint; his instrumental productions never again reaped the popularity of “Liquidator” but Johnson triumphed working with several of the island’s vocalists commencing with Marcia Griffiths and Bob Andy: their 1970 duets covering Nina Simone’s “Young Gifted and Black” and Crispian St. Peters’ “The Pied Piper” reached the upper tiers of the UK singles charts.

In 1972 Johnson opened a sixteen-track studio at 10 Roosevelt Avenue, Kingston, which revolutionized the reggae capital’s recording industry. “Back then, we were recording two-track and four-track sessions so it took great foresight for someone to go all the way to 16-tracks, which brought us on par with the rest of the world,” engineer/musician/producer Stephen Stewart told at Harry J studios; there Stewart learned audio engineering in the 1970s while still a teenager, working alongside the late Sylvan Morris. “Because he had the latest in technology Harry J attracted the best artists of the day,” Stewart noted.

A sampling of the classic 1970s roots reggae recordings done at Harry J studios includes: The Heptones’ “Book of Rules,” The Melodians’ “Sweet Sensation,” Toots and the Maytals’ “Reggae Got Soul,” Burning Spear’s “Days of Slavery” and Dennis Brown’s “So Long Rastafari.” Bob Marley and The Wailers also recorded their first four albums for Island Records at Harry J (“Catch a Fire,” “Burnin,” featuring Bunny Wailer and Peter Tosh, “Natty Dread,” and “Rastaman Vibration” with the I-Threes); presently, framed gold copies of those Wailers albums adorn the walls of the studio’s main room.

Harry J Studios are featured in the 1978 film “Rockers” (directed by Theodoros Bafaloukos and starring Leroy “Horsemouth” Wallace, Gregory Isaacs and Jacob Miller) in a scene that spotlights singer Kiddus I recording “Graduation In Zion” there.

Although the 1970s were Harry J’s production heyday he continued to produce and release hit singles throughout the 1980s including Sheila Hylton’s cover of The Police’s “The Bed’s Too Big Without You”, which reached no. 38 on the UK singles chart. Harry J responded to the massive “Sleng Teng” rhythm released by the King Jammys label in 1984, which jumpstarted Jamaican music’s digital revolution, with his aptly titled “Computer Rule” rhythm that spawned numerous hits for various singers and toasters including Daddy Freddy, Charlie Chaplin, Uglyman, and Little John.

Following a seven-year dormancy during the 1990s, Harry J studios reopened in 2000, under the management of Stephen Stewart who refurbished and re-equipped the facility, with Johnson retaining ownership of the premises. “Harry J pushed the business aspect of the industry, putting deals together and cataloguing his songs (including releases on the Jaywax, Roosevelt, 10 Roosevelt Avenue and Sunset subsidiaries), which were separate from the studio operations,” Stewart offered.

Countless reggae veterans including Toots Hibbert, Burning Spear, Sly and Robbie and Luciano have recorded at Harry J studios in recent years while upstart Jamaican groups Raging Fyah and Di Blueprint Band and an abundance of European reggae acts have each sought out its authentic roots reggae sound. “People come here to capture that live session chemistry where recording is more than just one person using a computer program,” observes Stewart. “The legacy of the musicianship that has come through here makes Harry J studios really special, it’s part of the vision Harry brought to Jamaican music.”